nursing 3 and 4 important things to remember

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side effect

an unintended secondary effect of a medication

therapeutic effect

an expected or predictable physiological response to medication

what is medication used for?

1) used to produce a local or systemic physiological effect
2) used in the treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of disease

what are considerations for elderly?

metabolism is slower and normal doses may build to toxic levels; observe for signs of adverse actions and drug toxicity

elixir

a clear liquid containg water and/or alcohol; designed for oral use;usually has sweetener added

syrup

a medication dissolved in concentrated sugar solution; may contain flavoring to make medication taste better

PO

oral or by mouth

Sub Q

subcutaneous-injection of sterile medication into subcutaneous tissue

IM

intramuscular- injection of sterile medication into a mucle. it has a more rapid systemic effect than oral or subcutaneous

IV

intavenous- injection of sterile medication into a vein. this has a very rapid systemic effect

ID

intradermal- injection of sterile medication into the dermis of the skin

SL

sublingual- medication dissolved under the tongue and absorbed through the blood vessels

PR

rectal- medication placed in the rectum for absorption through the mucous membranes

what are the four common types of medication orders?

standing, prn, single, stat

what is a standing order?

for multiple doses of a medication that may be administered either until it is canceled by the provider or until prescribed number of doses have been given

what is a PRN order?

for medication may be administered when the patient requires it, the provider sets limits for the interval between doses

what is a single order?

for medication to be administered once at a specified time

what is a stat order?

for a single dose of medication to be administered immediately

who is the only one allowed to carry the keys and have access to the narcotic locker?

Nurses

a medication order must contain what?

drug name, amount of drug per dose, number of doses, route of administration, frequency or number of times per day the drug is to be taken, signature of ordering provider

corpsman/technician do not take what?

verbal orders

what are the six rights of medication administration?

right medication, right dose, right route, right time, right patient, right documentation

what are the three medication checks?

medication is first located, after the medication is prepared, just before administering to patient at the bedside

what does ad lib mean?

freely as desired

what does bid stand for?

twice a day

what does gtt stand for?

drops

what does kvo stand for?

keep vein open

what does im stand for?

intramusculary

what does IV stand for?

intravaneously

what does npo stand for?

nothing by mouth

what does od stand for?

right eye

what does os stand for?

left eye

what does ou stand for?

both eyes

what does pr stand for?

per rectum

what does prn stand for?

when needed or requested

what does qid stand for?

four times a day

most errors occur when we fail to follow what?

the six rights

all medication errors must be what?

reported immediately

a what is filled out for the medication error and the doctor is notified?

incident report

what schedual has the highest abuse potential?

schedual I

what schedule has the lowest abuse potential?

schedual IV

in the metric system what do you never use?

fractions

antidysrhythmics what is its action?

prevention or correction of irregular heart rhythms

antidysrhythmics what is examples of it?

lidocaine or atropine

antihypertensives what is its action?

controls high blood pressure

antihypertensives what is examples of it?

atenolol or lisinopril

anitcoagulants what is its action?

inhibits clotting of the blood

anticoagulants what is examples of it?

warfarin or heparin

antacids what is its action?

used to neutralize acidity in the digestive system

antacids what is examples of it?

aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, or zantac

antiflatulants what is its action?

used for excess gas in the intestinal tract

aniflatulants what is examples of it?

simethicone or mylicon

nonopioid analgesics (non-narctic) what is its action?

relieves pain and inflammation

nonopioid analgesics (non-narcotics) what is examples of it?

aspirin and acetaminophen

nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (nsaids) what is its action?

counteraction of body tissue inflammation

nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (nsaids) what is examples of it?

ibuprofen or naproxen

anti-infectives (antibiotics) what is its action?

inhibits growth of or destroys microorganisms

anti-infectives (antibiotics) what is examples of it?

penicillin, tetracycline, or bacitracin

vaccines and toxoids what is its action?

artificially induced immunity to a specific disease or toxin

vaccines and toxoids what is examples of it?

toxoids- tetanus or diphtheria
vaccines- hepatities a or influenza

local anesthetic agents what is its action?

produce numbness in local area

local anesthetic agents what is examples of it?

xyllocaine

antipsychotic agents what is its action?

improves or moderates mental symptoms ranging from anxiety to psychosis

antipsychotic agents what is examples of it?

zyprexia, clozapine or risperdal

insulin what is its action?

decreases blood sugar by transport of glucose into the body tissures and cells

insulin what is examples of it?

novolin

oral hypoglycemics what is its action?

regulates amount of glucose in the blood

oral hypoglycemics what is examples of it?

glucophage or glyburide

cathartics what is its action?

acts as a cleanser that produces watery evacuation of intestinal contents through increased peristalsis

cathartics what is examples of it?

bisacodyl

stool softeners what is its action?

promotes bowel movement by adding water and or bulk to stool

stool softeners what is examples of it?

docusate

antiemetics what is its action?

prevention or relief of nausea/vomiting

antiemetics what is examples of it?

promethazine or metoclopramide

antidiarrheal what is its action?

control of diarrhea

antidiarrheal what is examples of it?

loperamide, kalin and pectin

what does route of medication administration depends on?

condition of the patient, nature of the drug, rate of absorption via one route

what is solids?

in the form of tablets, capsules or lozenges

what is liquids?

in the form of syrup, elixir or suspension

do not give medication by mouth if the patient is what?

lying down, has a poor gag reflex, is unconscious, or nauseous

do not give enteric coated medications with what?

milk or antacids

do not what enteric coated or sustained relases medications?

crush

what do you use to idenify your patient?

name and date of birth

when applying opthalmic medication what position do you have your patient lying in?

supine or sitting position with the head tilted back and to the side in which medication willl be administered

what do you do to an adult ear when applying medication

pull on the top of the ear up and back

what do you do to a child ear when applying medication

pull on the lower half down and back

when you spread the buttocks how far do you intoduce the medication?

about a finger lenghth

what are fequently used solutions for enema administration?

soap and water, normal saline, hypertonic solutions. fleets enema is the most common

what are injections given for?

patient cannot take medictions by mouth, hasten the action of the drug, digestive juices would counteract the effect of the drug given PO

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