Infectious and Communicable Diseases

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Chapter 36 Nancy Caroline's Emergency care in the Streets sixth edition

What is the avian flu caused by?

A virus that occurs naturally in the bird population

Small organisms that can grow and reproduce outside the human cell in the presence of the temperature and nutrients, and cause disease by invading and multiplying in the tissues of the host

bacteria

An individual who harbors an infectious agent and, although not personally ill, can transmit the infection to another person

carrier

The primary hard lesion or ulcer of syphilis that occurs at the entry site of the infection

chancre

A very contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus, which is part of the herpes virus family, occurring most often in winter and early spring

chicken pox

A sexually transmitted disease whose signs and symptoms include inflammation of the urethra, epididymis, cervix, fallopian tubes, and discharge form the urethra

chlamidya

A disease that can be trasmitted from one person to another under certain conditions

communicable disease

An individual trained to ensuring that proper post-exposure medical treatment and counseling is provided to an exposed employee or volunteer

designated infection control officer (DICO)

A common, normal organism of the GI tract, urinary tact, and genitourinary tract, and which may become resistant ti vancomycin

enterococcus

An inanimate object contaminated with microorganisms that serves as a means of transmitting an illness

fomite

A small organism that can grow rapidly in the presence of nutrients and organic material, and can cause infection related to contact with decaying organic matter or from airborne spores in the environment such as molds

fungus

A term that compromises many types of infections and irritations of the GI tract; symptoms include nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps

gastroenteritis

A sexually transmitted disease which results in infection; signs and symptoms include pus-containing discharge from the urethra and painful urination in males, and signs of an acute abdomen in females

gonorrhea

Type of virus found in wild rodents which can also cause disease in humans, characterized by fever, headache, abdominal pain, loss of appetite and vomiting

hantavirus

Also known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

hantavirus

Invertebrates with long, flexible, rounded, or flattened bodies, commonly called worms; a type of parasite

helminths

One's ability to fight off infection

host resistance

Jaundice; the yellow appearance of the skin and other tissues caused by an accumulation of bile pigments

icterus

The time period between exposure to an organism and the first symptoms of illness, during which the organism multiplies in the body and starts to produce symptoms

incubation period

The abnormal invasion of a host or host tissue by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites, with or without signs or symptoms of disease

infection

The flu

influenza

Tiny, wingless, parasitic insects that feed on the patient's blood, spread easily through close personal contact

lice

A tick-borne disease which primarily affects the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system, and characterized by a round, red lesion or bulls-eye rash

lyme disease

An infectious viral disease that occurs most often in later winter and spring, It begins with a fever followed by a cough, running nose, and pink eye. Then a rash spreads from the face and neck down the back and trunk

measles

An inflammation of the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord, usually caused by a virus or bacterium

meningitis

Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, often called the "kissing disease"

Mononucleosis

A viral infection that primarily affects the parotid glands, which are one of the three pairs of salivary glands, causing swelling in front of the ears

mumps

An infection acquired from a health care setting

nosocomial infection

An acronym that stands for other potentially infectious materials, including CSF, pericardial fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, amniotic fluid, peritoneal fluid, and any fluid containing gross visible blood

OPIM

Any living organism in or on any other living creature; takes advantage of the host by feeding off cells and tissues

parasite

Also called "whooping cough"

pertussis

An inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms

pneumonia

A fatal infection of the CNS caused by a bite from an animal that has been infected with the rabies virus

rabies

In the context of communicable disease, a place where organisms may live and multiply

reservoir

A viral disease similar to measles, best known by the distinctive red rash on the skin. It is not nearly as infectious or severe as measles

rubella

Another name for the hepatitis B virus

serum hepatitis

Potentially life-threatening viral infection that usually starts with flu-like symptoms

severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

Any individual, living or dead, whose blood or other potentially infectious materials may be a source of occupational exposure to the member/volunteer.

source individual

The new term used to describe the infection control practices that will reduce the opportunity for exposure of providers in the daily care of patients

standard precautions

A disease caused by spores that enter the body through a puncture wound contaminated with animal feces, street dust, or soil, or which can enter through contaminated street drugs, and whose signs and symptoms include pain at the wound site and painful muscle contractions in the neck and trunk muscles

tetanus

An infection which can progress to a disease characterized by a persistent cough for 2 to 3 weeks plus night sweats, headache, weight loss, hemoptysis, or chest pain

tuberculosis (TB)

A tiny fluid-filled sac; a small blister

vesicle

An inflammation of the liver produced by one of the five distinct forms a virus- A,B,C,D,and E

viral hepatitis

The ability of an organism to invade and create disease in a host. Also refers to the ability of an organism to survive outside the living host

virulence

A small organism that can only multiply inside a host, such as a human, and cause disease

virus

A type of virus that is transmitted by misquitos and which usually causes mild disease in humans, but can cause encephalitis, meningitis, or death.

West Nile Virus (WNV)

Has promulgated rules and regulations designed to protect the employees of public and private organizations

OSHA

Why should anitbacterial handwashing solutions not be used?

They kill off all bacteria and viruses on the skin, including normal flora

What are a few protective barriers of the body?

skin, mucous membranes, immune system

What are the mechanisms by which communicable disease can spread?

direct contact, indirect contact, inhalation, puncture by contaminated needle, transfusion, vectorborne

What is an example of a communicable disease spread through direct contact?

the common cold

What is an example of a communicable disease spread through indirect contact?

touching a bloody stretcher railing with an open cut or sore on your hand, towels used by patients

What is an example of a vectorborne disease?

West Nile Virus by misquitos

What factors influence the level of risk of contracting an infection following an exposure?

type of organism, dosage of organism, virulence of organism, mode of entry, host resistance

How do bacteria cause disease?

When they invade and multiply in the host

What is an example of a bacteria that causes illness?

salmonella

What are examples of parasites?

scabies and lice

What us the designated infection control officer (DICO) designated with?

ensuring that proper postexposure medical treatment and counseling is provided to the exposed employee, volunteer

What are jobs performed by the DICO?

tracks and follows the correct time frames, serves as a liason between the exposed employee and the medical facility, ensures that confidentiality is maintained, and makes sure that documentation adheres to guidelines

Which three individuals does the network for exposure reporting involve?

the exposed paramedic, the DICO, and the treating physician

What does the public health department act as?

A backup for exposure notification and determination of the need for medical follow-up treatment

This approach assumes that all blood and body fluids are infectious

standard precautions

Published guidelines for the recommended vaccinations and immunizations that should be offered to health care providers

CDC

Your major protective measure

handwashing

What are gloves not essentially needed for?

SQ or IM injections or contact with sweat

What are N95 or P100 respirators indicated for?

smallpox and SARS

What do more than 80% of exposures of health care providers to infectious agents come from?

sharp injuries

What is your third line of defense against communicable diseases?

postexposure medical followup

Who does postexposure medical management begin with?

The source individual, not the exposed employee

Under this law, the medical facility must release the source patient's test results to the DICO; this release is not considered a HIPAA violation

Ryan White Law

What are key components of the Exposure Control Plan?

proper education and training related to bloodborne pathogens and TB and establishment of postexposure medical follow-up procedures, compliance monitoring

What are measles characterized by?

fever, conjunctivitis, coughing, a blotchy red rash, and whitish gray spots on the buccal (mouth) mucosa

How is measles transmitted?

by airborne aerosolized droplets

Another name for rubella

German measles

How are mumps transmitted?

by droplet spread or direct contact with the saliva of the infected person

What are signs and symptoms or chicken pox?

slight fever, photosensitivity, and a vesicular rash that gradually crusts over, leaving a series of scabs

Herpes Zoster

Shingles

Varicella

chicken pox

Which form of meningitis is communicable?

bacterial

How is meningitis transmitted?

droplet-transmitted; not airborne

What are the classic signs and symptoms of meningitis?

sudden-onset fever, severe headache, stiff neck, photosensitivity, and a pink rash that becomes purple in color, change in mental status

How is diagnosis of meningitis made?

by Gram stain

What is the difference between TB infection and TB disease?

TB infection means that the individual has tested positive for exposure to TB but does not have, and may never develop the active disease. TB disease means that individual has active TB disease verified by lab testing and a positive chest radiograph

What are signs and symptoms of TB?

persistent cough for more than 3 weeks plus one more of the following: night sweats, headache, weight loss, hemoptysis, or chest pain

Worldwide, is the leading cause of death in pediatric patients, particularly infants

pneumonia

An infection of the lungs and airways that usually occurs in children 3 to 6 months of age, starts with a runny nose and slight fever and after 2 to 3 days, the child is wheezing and coughing with tachypnea and tachycardia

bronchiolitis

Inflammation of the larynx and and airway just below it, primarily affects children 5 years or younger. Symptoms include a loud, harsh, barking cough, fever, noisy inhalations, hoarse voice, and mild to moderate dyspnea

croup

What are symptoms of epiglottitis?

difficulty breathing and swallowing with stridor and drooling, anxiety, cyanosis, muffled voice, fever

What are two things often seen in infants with RSV and usually the leading cause for the child's hospitalization?

hypoxemia and apnea

What are signs and symptoms of mononucleosis?

sore throat, fever, secretions from the pharynx, and swollen lymph glands, with or without malaise, anorexia, headache, muscle pain, and an enlarged spleen or liver

Has the highest incidence of all STDs

chlamidya

What are signs and symptoms of scabies?

nocturnal itching, presence of a rash involving the hands, flexor aspects of the wrists, axillary folds, ankles, toes, genital area, buttocks, and abdomen

How is Hepatitis B transmitted?

sexual contact, blood transfusion, or puncture of the skin with contaminated needles, IV drug use

What are signs and symptoms of the second phase of hepatitis B?

the urine begins to turn dark, the patient develops jaundice and scleral icterus

The most common chronic bloodborne infection and the leading cause of liver transplant in the U.S.

hepatitis C

What does hepatitis D require?

That the host be infected with hepatitis B for hepatitis D infection to occur

How is hepatitis A transmitted?

fecal-oral route

Why is hepatitis A considered a "benign" disease?

Because once you acquire the disease, you have lifelong immunity to it

How is hepatitis E acquired?

fecal-oral route through contaminated water

What does lyme disease primarily affect?

skin, heart, joints, and nervous system

What is lyme disease characterized by?

a bulls-eye rash, most commonly in the area of the groin, thigh, or axilla

What is the key sign that suggests tetanus?

abdominal rigidity

How is MRSA believed to be transmitted in the health care setting?

from patient to patient via unwashed hands of health care providers

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