BIO160 - Ch. 10 Blood

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The volume of erythrocytes within a given volume of whole blood, expressed as a percentage, is __________.

hematocrit

The plasma protein that contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood is __________.

albumin

The iron-containing protein found in RBCs that transports the majority of oxygen carried in the blood is __________.

hemoglobin

The anucleate cells that function to transport oxygen to the body's cells are called __________.

erthrocytes (RBCs)

A decrease in the blood's ability to transport oxygen is called __________

anemia

The red blood cell disorder caused by life at a high altitude is called __________.

polycythemia

White blood cells are also called __________.

leukocytes

The movement of WBCs to areas of inflammation in response to chemical mediators is called __________.

positive chemotaxis

An abnormal elevation of WBCs above the normal count of 11,000 cells/mm3 is called __________.

leukocytosis

The process by which WBCs are able to easily slip in and out of blood vessels is called __________.

diapedesis

The process of blood cell formation within the red marrow of bones is called __________.

hematopoiesis

The process by which bleeding is stopped is called __________.

hemostasis

A thrombus that has broken away from a vessel wall and is freely floating in the bloodstream is called an __________.

embolus

An insufficiency of circulating platelets is called __________.

thrombocytopenia

Hereditary bleeding disorders that result from lack of clotting factors are referred to as __________.

hemophilia

Substances that the body recognizes as foreign are called __________.

antigens

The rarest blood type in the United States is type __________.

AB

Blood type A carries the __________ antigen.

A

The blood type referred to as the universal donor is called type __________.

O

A person with type B blood can receive blood from blood type(s) __________.

B; O

If you carry the Rh antigen, you are referred to as Rh __________.

positive

The condition in which maternal antibodies cross the placenta and destroy the baby's RBCs is called __________.

hemolytic disease of the newborn

The condition in which fetal RBCs are destroyed faster than the infant liver can rid the body of the breakdown products of hemoglobin is called __________.

physiologic jaundice

The matrix of blood is called:

plasma

In a centrifuged blood sample, the buffy coat between the formed elements and the plasma contains:

leukocytes and platelets

Which one of the following is NOT a physical characteristic of blood:

sweet tasting

Which one of the following does NOT describe blood plasma:

it is the color of red wine

Which one of the following formed elements is the most abundant:

erythrocytes

Erythrocytes:

are anucleate

Normal whole blood contains __________ g of hemoglobin per 100 mL.

12-18

Which of the following is not a type of red blood cell disorder?

leukemia

Excessive erythrocytes result in:

polycythemia

There are an average of __________ WBCs per cubic millimeter of whole blood.

4000-11,000

Which one of the following is NOT true of WBCs:

they initiate the clotting process

Which one of the following groups consist of granulocytes:

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

The type of leukocytes that would increase rapidly during allergy attacks and infections of parasitic worms are:

eosinophils

The most numerous white blood cells are the:

neutrophils

Which type of leukocyte contains heparin, an anticoagulant:

basophil

The type of leukocytes that become macrophages in the tissues are:

monocytes

Platelets are fragments of multinucleate cells called:

megakaryocytes

Blood cell formation in adults occurs in all of the following EXCEPT the:

shaft of the femur

The series of reactions that stop blood flow following a cut is called:

hemostasis

Which one of the following represents the proper sequence of hemostasis:

vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, coagulation

Which chemical is released to bring about vasoconstriction during the vascular spasm phase of hemostasis:

serotonin

Blood normally clots in approximately:

3 to 6 minutes

Prothrombin activator coverts prothrombin to:

thrombin

A __________ clot is formed during the process of hemostasis.

fibrin

A clot that breaks away from a vessel wall and circulates freely within the bloodstream is called a(n):

embolus

Which of the following is a blood clotting disorder:

hemophilia

Bleeding disorders often result from a lack of which one of the following vitamins:

vitamin K

The ion essential for blood clotting is:

calcium

The organ largely responsible for the synthesis of clotting factors is the:

liver

Treatment of hemophilia often involves

transfusion of plasma or injections of missing clotting factor

Severe shock occurs with blood loss of:

over 30 percent

A substance that stimulates the immune system to release antibodies:

antigen

The process whereby the binding of antibodies to antigens causes RBCs to clump is called:

agglutination

Which antigen(s) does type AB blood contain:

A and B antigens

The most common type of blood in the U.S. population is:

O

The universal recipient has blood type:

AB

ABO blood groups are based on the presence of:

A and B antigens

Which blood type(s) can a person with blood type O receive:

blood type O

The immune serum used to prevent maternal sensitization to Rh antigens is:

RhoGAM

Which of these blood types carries no antigens:

blood type O

Compatibility testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipients' serum is called:

cross matching

Anemias appearing in old age result from all of the following EXCEPT:

erythrocyte mutations

Normal pH of blood is between 7.35 and 7.45.

TRUE

Blood plasma is largely water.

TRUE

The temperature of blood is slightly lower than body temperature.

FALSE

Leukocytes are more numerous in blood than erythrocytes.

FALSE

The process by which white blood cells move in and out of blood vessels is called phagocytosis.

FALSE

An abnormally low WBC count is called leukopenia.

TRUE

Basophils are the most numerous type of leukocyte.

FALSE

All formed elements arise from a common type of stem cell called a hemocytoblast.

TRUE

Normal blood volume in healthy males is 5-6 liters.

TRUE

Erythropoeitin is released to stimulate platelet production in response to inadequate amounts of oxygen in the blood.

FALSE

Hemophilia is commonly called "bleeder's disease."

TRUE

A phlebotomist collects and processes blood samples for laboratory analysis.

TRUE

Blood type A will respond to a blood transfusion of blood type B with anti-B antibodies.

TRUE

Rh-related problems occur in pregnant Rh- women carrying an Rh+ baby.

TRUE

Universal donors can receive blood groups A, B, AB, and O.

FALSE

Transports oxygen bound to hemoglobin

erythrocytes

Active phagocytes that increase rapidly during acute infection

neutrophils

Kill parasitic worms

eosinophils

Transport carbon dioxide

erythrocytes

Active phagocytes that become macrophages

monocytes

Form B and T lymphocytes

lymphocytes

Contain histamine

basophils

Increase during allergy

eosinophils

Produce antibodies

lymphocytes

Long-term "clean-up team"

monocytes

The blood type that has no antigens

Blood type O

The blood type that possesses the A antigen only

Blood type A

The blood type that can receive blood types B and O

Blood type A

The blood type that forms anti-A and anti-B antibodies

Blood type O

The blood type known as the universal recipient

Blood type AB

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