maintaing internal balance
List five characteristics of living things
grow, develop, reproduce, homeostasis, undergo metabolism, made up of cells, respond and evolve
predicting a possible answer to a problem or question (usually don as an "if...then" statement)
List the steps used to focus a microscope
Place a prepared slide on the viewing tray of your microscope; Look through the eyepiece of your microscope to see the specimen on your slide. The image you see will likely be fuzzy and unrecognizable; Slowly turn the coarse focus knob on your microscope. This will be a large knob, usually located on the side of the microscope. Keep turning the coarse focus knob until you can recognize what you are seeing; Turn the fine focus knob. This is a small knob, usually located below or beside the coarse focus knob. Keep turning until the intricate details of your specimen begin to become visible. Intricate details include things like individual hairs, the various parts of a compound eye on a bug or the mites in a particle of dust; Turn the diaphragm of your microscope. This is a large disc located below the eyepiece and above the lens. The diaphragm controls how much light can go through the lens; Notice a distinct contrast between your specimen and the slide. This is caused by the amount of light let through by the diaphragm; Adjust the slide on the viewing tray as necessary to get a full view of the specimen. Be sure only to touch the edges of the slide when moving it around.
List the functions of the a) arm, b) base, c) body tube, and d)eyepiece of a microscope
a) supports the tube and connects it to the base; b) the bottom of the microscope, used for support; c) connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses; d) the lense at the top that you look through to see the image of your specimen
What do the lenses in the microscope do to an image
a standard of comparison
What is a logical, orderly way to solve a problem?
What is the total sum of all the chemicals reactions in the body?
What is a hypothesis which is supported by experimentation?
Define meter, liter, and gram?
metric unit of length; metric unit of volume; metric unit of mass
List in order the steps of the scientific method
observation/question; hypothesis; experiment; collect and analyze results; conclusion; communicate the results
What makes a compound organic?
presence of carbon
What is the function of carbs like glucose?
main energy source for the body
Where are the acids found on the pH scale?
From 0-7; High in H+ ions
Where are the bases found on the pH scale?
From 7-14; High in OH- ions
What is the smallest particle of matter which still retains properties of an element?
What are the atoms with different number of neutrons but the same number of protons?
What other information does the atomic number tell you?
Number of protons, and number of electrons if the atom is neutral
Define ionic bonding
atoms that become stable by gaining or losing electrons
Define covalent bonding
formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
How many electrons can the first energy level of an atom hold?
How many different amino acids are there?
What elements are found in proteins?
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
How do you calculate the total magnification of a microscope?
multiply the magnification of the lense by the magnification of the setting
Define sexual reproduction
reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite
Define asexual reproduction
eproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces an offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Give the molecular formula for glucose
What are enzymes?
substances that increase the speed of chemical reactions
What are electrically charged atoms?
What is a particle in an atom with a positive charge?
What is the function of ribosomes?
To make proteins
What two types of molecules make up the cell membrane?
proteins and phospholipids
What is the function of chloroplast?
allows plants to harvest energy from sunlight for photosynthesis
What is the function of mitochondria?
to produce ATP
What are the differences between plant and animal cells?
A plant cell has a chloroplast, a cell wall, and a large vacuole while animal cells don't have chloroplast or a cell wall and a small vacuole instead of a big one. Plant cells also use photosynthesis and are rectangular while animal cells are either irregularly shaped or circular and do not use photosynthesis
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
What is the difference between a eukaryotic cell and a prokaryotic cell?
EUKARYOTIC CELL:an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, multiple chromosomes and a mitotic cycle. Include animals, plants and fungi but not bacteria or cyanobacteria; PROKARYOTIC CELL: an organism that consists of a single cell that doesn't have a nucleus or cell organelle. Example: bacteria
What are specialized structures in the cytoplasm of cells?
What is a nucleoplasm?
the protoplasm of the nucleus of a cell.
What is the very thin structure which encloses a cell and controls what enters and leaves?
Which scientist was the first to record observing cells and built the first rough microscope?
What are small sacs with powerful digestive chemicals and are enclosed by membranes?
What is the rigid outer structure made of cellulose in plant cells?
What is the mass of fibers within the nucleus of the cells?
What is cytoplasm?
the region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
What is the command center of the cell?
What are the large, clear, fluid-filled sacs used for storage?
List parts of the cell theory
All living things are made up of cells; Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism (basic unit of life); Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells (cell division)
Which organelle packages and distributes protiens?
What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution? Hypertonic solution?
HYPERTONIC: the cell shrinks; HYPOTONIC: the cell swells
What is active transport?
the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. requires cells to use energy
What is passive transport?
the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
What is pinocytosis?
most common form of endocytosis, takes in dissolved molecules (liquids) as a vesicle. called "cell drinking"
What is phagocytosis?
used to engulf large particles such as food, bacteria, etc. into vesicles. called "cell eating". a form of endocytosis
List the properties of the cell membrane
cell membrane is semipermeable; has channels to allow larger molecules to pass through; surrounds the cell; made up of phospholipids
Of what is the cell membrane composed?
phospholipid bilayer- phosphate head, fatty tails, protein
What is necessary to move particles AGAINST the flow of diffusion?
energy from ATP
Define cellular respiration
the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmosphere oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
Give the balanced equation for cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
Which molecule in the cell traps energy in controlled amounts?
What is the function of the stomata on the leaf? Where are they located?
is an opening on the underside of a leaf which takes in carbon dioxide from the air
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
organisms that use energy from the sunlight or form chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds
organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances
What is the green pigment which absorbs light energy in photosynthesis?
What is aerobic respiration?
describes a process that requires oxygen
What is anaerobic respiration?
describes a process that does NOT require oxygen
In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?
What happens when a phosphate is removed from ATP
It becomes ADP
What compound causes sore muscles from anaerobic respiration?
Due to its shape, what term is used to describe DNA?
When in the cell cycle does DNA occur?
the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at the ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amnio acids in the polypeptide chains
List the names of the bases found in DNA. Which bases pair together?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine; A and T, G and C
List the names of the bases found in RNA? Which bases pair together.
Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine; A and U, G and C
Define DNA replication
process of making DNA
What do the bases in DNA determine?
sequence of amino acids in the proteins
What is made of one sugar, one phosphate, and one nitrogen base?
Who were Watson and Crick?
made the first model of DNA
What is a change in DNA called?
What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis is the division of the nucleis and meiosis is the division of the cell
If a germ cell undergoing meiosis contained 10 chromosomes, how any chromosomes will there be in the daughter cells produced?
reduces chromosomes number in half so five
What is cytokinesis?
the division of the cytoplasma of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
How do cells know when to divide?
When they're too big
What is nondisjunction? Give an example of a disorder caused by nondisjunction
failure of chromosomes to divide properly during meiosis; down syndrome
genotype- gene combination of one dominant and one recessive allele (hybrid)
Define phenotype. Give an example.
the physical feature resulting from a genotype; EX: purple flowers
What is the study of heredity?
genotype- gene combination involving two dominant or two recessive genes (pure)