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Where does the spinal cord terminate

L-L2 at the conus medullaris

How many pairs of vertebrae

31

Sensory neuron cell bodies are found in an enlarged area of the dorsal root called

gray commissure

Fiber tracts conducting sensory impulses to the brain are called ascending or

sensory

ventral rami of spinal nerves except for t2 to t12 form complex network of nerves known as

plexuses

injuries to the _____ cause weakness or paralysis of the entire upper limb

brachial

how many cervical spinal nerves

8, 7 vertebrae but one nerve arises from above

how many thoracic spinal nerves

12

how many lumbar spinal nerves

5

how many sacral spinal nerves

5

fight or flight

sympathetic

rest and digest

parasympathetic

ventral roots contain

myelinated axons

almost immediately after each nerve emerges it divides into

dorsal and ventral rami

complex network of nerves

plexus

what has no plexus

intercostal nerves

plexuses serve

motor and sensory needs of muscles, skin and limbs

four major nerve plexus are

cervical, brachial, lumbar and sacral

cervical plexus location and function

know 2

phrenic

c3-c5 serves diaphragm

greater auricular

c2-c3 skin of ear, skin over parotid gland

suprascapular

c5-c6 upper trunk, shoulder joint, supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles

femoral

l2-l4 skin of anterior and medial thight

genitofemoral

skin of scrotum in males or labia majoria in females

superior gluteal

l4-s1,motor branches to gluteus medius and minimus

inferior gluteal

motor branches to gluteus maximus, think inferior serves superior or larger muscle

cervical plexus serves

head and neck

brachial plexus serves

shoulder chest, upper back and arms, c5-c8 & t1

lumbar plexus serves

upper leg, quad, abdomen, general, l1-l4

sacral plexus serves

legs foot gluteal (some genital)

most superior boundary of spinal cord

foramen magnum

meningeal extension beyond the spinal cord terminus

filum terminale

spinal cord terminus

conus medullaris

collection of spinal nerves traveling in the vertebral canal below terminus

cauda equina

neuron type found in dorsal horn

interneuron

neuron tupe found in ventral horn

motor

neuron tupe found in dorsal root ganglion

sensory

fiber type in ventral root

motor

fiber type in dorsal root

sensory

fiber type in spinal nerve

sensory and motor

where is a lumbar puncture done

l3-l4 or l4-l5

why

it's passed the conus medullaris little risk of damage

where is the cord enlarged

cervical and lumbar region

why is the cord enlarged

nerves issue from these regions

how does position of gray & white matter differ in brain and spinal cord

in spinal cord white surrounds gray, brain is gray, white, gray

how many meninges does the spinal cord have

3, dura, arachnoid and pia mater

horns

ventral is wider than dorsal

ventral rami of spinal nerves c1 through t1 and t12 and through s4 take part in forming

plexuses

these serve

limbs and anterior trunk

ventral rami of t1-t12

run between ribs to serve intercostals

damage to dorsal root of spinal nerve

loss of sensory function

damage to ventral root of spinal nerve

loss of motor function

damage to ventral ramus of spinal nerve

loss of sensory and motor function

plexus

network of joining and diverging nerves

head neck and shoulders

cervical plexus

diaphragm

phrenic

posterior thigh

sciatic

leg and foot

fibular and plantar

anterior forearm

median and ulnar

arm muscles

radial and musculocutaneous

abdominal wall

lumbar plexus

anterior thigh

femoral

medial side of hand

ulnar

why do sympathetic and parasympathetic act as antagonists when they serve the same areas

release different neurotransmitters which bind to different

3 structures that receive sympathtic but not parasympathetic innervation

adrenal glads, arrector pili, sweat glands

reflex

rapid predictable response to stimuli

reflexes that involve skeletal muscle

somatic

in a relfex arc what transmits afferent impulses to the cns

sensory neuron

stretch reflex

tap tendon, contracts muscle

autonomic reflex

salivary

effectors of salivary reflex are

glands

relfex arc

receptor , sensory neuron , integration center, motor neuron , effector responds

somatic

abdominal, achilles, corneal, crossed exten, gag, patellar and plantar

simple stretch

achilles and patellar which are cord mediated

superficial cord

abdominal and plantar

2 somatic reflexes where higher brain participates

abdominal and plantar

what type is ciliospinal

sympathetic

ciliospinal is

stroke skin on back of neck

pupillary

parasympathetic

pupillary

pupil size decreases

salivary

parasympathetic

crossed extensor

extends opposite limb

contralateral

opposite

ipsilateral

same

autonomic

activation of smooth or cardiac muscles and glands

somatic

activation of skeletal muscles

three factors that may modify reaction time to stimulus

receptor sensitivity, nerve conduction velocity, # of neurons and synapses involved

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