Geology Rocks and Minerals

Created by STA_Gators Teacher

91 terms · Photos and Information

sphalerite: NM; 3.5-4 Hardness; no cleavage; dark brown-->black; light yellow streak; cubic habit; sulfuric smell

Mineral

Gypsum: NM; 2 Hardness; Basal Cleavage; translucent white; white streak; scratch with fingernail

Mineral

Galena: Metallic; 2.5 Hardness; Cubic cleavage; light gray/silver; grey-black streak; very dense; sulfuric smell; not magnetic

Mineral

Augite: NM; 5.5 Hardness; Prismatic (2D cleavage); Dark green-gray; white streak; glossy; cleavage planes: 93 and 87; Chemical Formula (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al,Ti)(SiAl)2)O6

Mineral

Quartz: NM; 7 Hardness; Conchoidal fracture; Clear, purple; no streak; hexagonal habit; Chemical Formula: SiO2

Mineral

Halite: NM; 2.5 hardness; Cubic cleavage; Clear; white streak; breaks into cubes; salty taste; cubic crystal habit; Chemical Formula: NaCl

Mineral

Olivine: NM; 7 Hardness; Conchoidal Fracture; Green w/dark speckles; white streak; sandy texture; small crystals; Chemical Composition: (Fe,Mg)2SiO4

Mineral

potassium feldspar: NM (glossy); 6.5 Hardness; Cubic Cleavage; light pink; no streak; light pink with lighter white part; Chemical Formula: KAlSi3O8

Mineral

Pyrite: Metallic; 5.5 Hardness; no cleavage; bronze-gold; no streak; shiny

Mineral

Epidote: NM; 6.5 hardness; no cleavage; green, brown, black, white; no streak; shiny

Mineral

Kaolinite: NM; 2.5 hardness; no cleavage; white with white streak; chalk-like; Chemical Formula: Al4(Si4O10)(OH)8

Mineral

Azurite: NM; 2.5-4.5 Hardness; no cleavage; blue-brown (light); blue streak; non magnetic

Mineral

Kyanite: NM; 4.5 Hardness; No cleavage; green, blue, gray; white streak; blades (blue)

Sulfur: NM; 1.5-2.5 Hardness; no cleavage; yellow; pale yellow streak; sulfuric smell

Element/Mineral

Hornblende (amphibole): NM; 5.5-6.5 Hardness; prismatic cleavage at 56 and 124 degrees; dark gray; light gray streak; striations; Chemical Formula Ca2(Mg,Fe)4Al(Si2Al)O22(OH,F)2

Mineral

Calcite: NM; 2.9 Hardness; cubic cleavage; white and translucent; white streak; effervesces; Chemical Formula: CaCO3

Mineral

Talc: NM; less than 2.5 hardness; no cleavage; light tan-->white; white streak; soapy feel; scratch with fingernail

Mineral

Fluorite: NM; 4.5-5.5 hardness; 4 dimensional cleavage; green, blue, white, brown; white streak

Mineral

Garnet: NM; 6.5 Hardness; no cleavage; some parting; dark red-black; no streak; opaque with translucent red; fractured/parting

Biotite Mica: NM; less than 2.5 Hardness; Basal Cleavage; Bronzey-brown; green streak; brittle, comes off in sheets; peels off

Mineral

Tourmaline: NM, greater than 5.5 less than 6.5 hardness; poor cleavage; gray-black; black streak; waxy; non-metallic; striations

Mineral

Hematite: Metallic; 5.5-6.5 hardness; no cleavage; dark metallic gray; light brown streak; slightly magnetic

Mineral

Corundum: NM; 9 hardness; no cleavage; brown-gray; no streak; hexagonal habit; striated ends

Mineral

Dolomite: NM; 2.9 Hardness; no cleavage; opaque off-white; white streak; sandy; effervesces when powdered; Chemical Formula CaMg(CO3)2

Mineral

Graphite: Metallic; 2.5 or less hardness; no cleavage; silver; silver-black streak

Mineral

Plagioclase Feldspar: NM; 6 Hardness; Prismatic cleavage (angles about 90 degrees); dark gray with some green; no streak; looks like oil on water in places (oil marks); Chemical Formula: NaAlSi3O8

Mineral

Muscovite Mica: NM; less than 5.5 hardness; Basal Cleavage; translucent copper clear sheets; light gray streak; breaks off into thin translucent sheets; Chemical Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O17)(OH,F)2

Mineral

Staurolite: NM; greater than 6.5 hardness; no cleavage; dark brown; no streak; penetrating twinning; six-sided structure

Mineral

Chlorite: NM; greater than 6.5 hardness; excellent basal cleavage; transparent green with dark spots; clear flakes; streak is flakes; clean clear sheets

Not on list

Apatite: NM; 5 hardness; conchoidal fracture; lemon yellow or green; white streak; hexagonal; bubbles

Mineral

Gabbro: Phaneritic; Mafic; Has Augite and Plagioclase feldspar in it

Igneous

Pumice: Glassy/Vesicular; not felsic or mafic

Igneous

Breccia: Pyroclastic

Sedimentary

Diorite: Phaneritic; Intermediate; Plagioclase Feldspar, Hornblende and Augite

Igneous

OBsidian: Glassy

Igneous

Vesicular Basalt: Vesicular; Mafic; Plagioclase feldspar, hornblende and Augite

Igneous

Rhyolite: Aphanitic (fine grained); Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz

Igneous

Granite: Phaneritic; Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz

Igneous

Porphyritic Andesite: Porphyritic; Intermediate; Plagioclase feldspar

Igneous

Basalt; Aphanitic; Mafic; Olivine and Pyroxene

Igneous

Peridotite: Phaneritic; Ultramafic; Olivine and pyroxene

Not on list

Pegmatitic Granite: Phaneritic; Felsic; Potassium Feldspar and quartz

Igneous

Oolitic Limestone: Sedimentary; sand-size particles; bioclastic--> calcite; oolites; effervesces

Sedimentary

Siltstone/Mudstone; Sedimentary; Mud-sized particles; silicates and quartz

Sedimentary

conglomerate: Sedimentary; gravel-sized particles; detrital--> siliciclastic; rock pieces

Sedimentary

Greywacke Sandstone: sedimentary; Mud/sand sized particles; silicates

Sedimentary

Bituminous Coal: no particle size; carbon and organics; layered; shiny in spots; light

Sedimentary

Micrite Limestone: Sedimentary; mud sized particles; calcite; effervesces

Sedimentary

Dolostone: Sedimentary; mud-size particles; dolomite; effervesces when powdered

Sedimentary

Chert: Sedimentary; no particle size; microcrystalline; silicates; conchoidal fracture

Sedimentary

Fossilliferous Limestone: Sedimentary; sand-size particles; carbonate and calcite; shells/fossils

Sedimentary

Rock Gypsum: Sedimentary; no particle size; Gypsum

Mineral

Arkose Sandstone: Sand-size particles; feldspars and silicates

Sedimentary

Shale: mud-size particles; silicates; layered

Sedimentary

Coquina: gravel size particles; calcite and shell fragments; effervesces

Sedimentary

Ironstone: sand size particles; Hematite; iron-rich; red streak

Mineral

chalk: mud-size particles; calcite; effervesces

Quartzite: metamorphic; non-foliated; fine--> coarse grained; quartz; sandy--> grains don't come off; parent rock: Sandstone

Serpentinite: Non foliated; microcrystalline; green; glassy; conchoidal fracture; serpentine; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Ultramafic igneous rocks

chlorite/green schist: foliates: schist-like; quartz; shiny; schistocity; scaly; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate, phyllite

Gneiss: Foliated, banded; quartz; banding, color alternating layers, coarse-grained; Parent Rock: Granite

Anthracite Coal: Non-Foliated; fine-grained; Light, glassy, conchoidal fracture; Parent Rock: Peat, Lignite, Bituminous Coal

Hornfels: Non-Foliated; Microcrystalline; hard, dark, sparkly; contact metamorphism; Parent Rock: Any Rock

Phyllite: Foliated; Schist-like; dark, hard, shiny, phyllitic texture; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate

Soapstone: Non-foliated; microcrystalline; soft, can scratch with fingernail; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Dolostone, Ultramafic igneous rocks

Slate: Foliated; no visible grains; shingle-like; flat, slatey, breaks into sheets, cleavage; Parent Rock: Mudstone or Shale

Amphibolite: Foliated or Non-foliated; medium--> coarse-grained; glossy black; blade-like crystals; Parent Rock: Basalt, Gabbro, Ultramafic igneous rocks

Muscovite/Mica Schist: Foliated; medium--> coarse-grained; schist-like; porphyroblasts--> staurolite; Parent Rock: mudstone, shale, slate

Albite
White,tan, or cream feldspar
Hardness:6-6.5
Specific gravity:2.6-2.63
Streak:white
Color: many eps. White
Group: silicates
Crystal shape: monoclinic

Almandine
H:6.5-7.5, S.G:4.31. Color deep purplish red. Usually found in metamorphic rock.

a deep red garnet consisting of iron aluminum silicate

...

Amazonite
Bright green feldspar
Hardness: 6-6.5
Streak: white
Color: medium ESP. Green
Group: silicates
Crystal shape: triclinic

...

Aragonite
white, powdery variety of calcite. can often form amber-colored hexagonal crystals
hardness:3.5-4
specific gravity: 2.54-2.95
streak: white
color; many
group: carbonates
crystal shape: orthorhambic

...

Bauxite
a clay-like mineral, H 1-3 S.g 2-2.5 Luster: dull

It is the main ore for production of aluminum. Note the obvious nodules.

...

Barite
H 3-3.5 S.G. 4.3-4.6 Streak: White, Color: white or colorless mineral (BaSO4). Can be bluish, yellow, brown or reddish. A heavy mineral that can be recognized by its specific gravity (SG). Quartz is harder and not as heavy

...

Bornite
Cu5FeS4

H 3.0, S.G. 5.06-5.08 Streak: gray-black Luster: metallic

This beautiful purplish iridescence helps to identify this copper mineral . Sometimes called peacock ore. Untarnished bornite is golden colored

a mineral consisting of sulfides of copper and iron that is found in copper deposits

...

Celestite
usually a soft, translucent white or blue
hardness:3-3.5
specific gravity:3.96-3.98
streak:white
color;light
group:sulfates
crystal shape:othorhombic

...

Chalcopyrite
Metallic. H = 3.5 - 4. Streak: dark gray. Color bright silvery gold, tarnishes bronze, brassy gold or iridescent blue-green and red; brittle; No cleavage. Forms dense masses or elongate tetrahedrons.

...

Copper
H: 2.5-3, S.G 8.94, Streak: Black, Luster: Metallic. Native copper looks how we think copper should look. Major deposits of native copper in Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan.

...

Diamond
native crystalline carbon that is the hardest known mineral, that is usually nearly colorless, that when transparent and free from flaws is highly valued as a precious stone, and that is used industrially especially as an abrasive; also : a piece of this substance

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Goethite
hardness:5-5.5
specific gravity:3.3-3.4
streak:orange-brownish
color:black-brown light
group:hydroxides
crystal shape:othorhombic

...

Gold
a soft yellow malleable ductile (trivalent and univalent) metallic element

...

Lepidolite
Hardness:2.5-4
Heft: 2.8
Color:Pink, lilac, purple
Streak: white, grey
Breakage: cleavage in two directions
Luster: nonmetallic (vitreous)
Other:small crystals and flaky

...

Magnetite
Metallic. H = 6 - 6.5. Streak: dark gray. Color silvery gray to black; opaque; forms octahedrons; tarnishes gray. No cleavage; Attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized.

...

Malachite
Formula:
Luster: NM
Hardness: 3.5-4
Streak: Green
Specific Gravity: 3.6-4.0
Properties/Cleavage: Opaque green. Forms laminations, coatings or masses. No cleavage. Effervesces with HCI.
Mineral Class: Carbonate
Uses: Gemstone, Ore of copper.

...

Opal
NM. H = 5 - 5.5. Streak: white. Colorless to white, orange, yellow, brown, blue, gray, green, or red; may have play of colors (opalescence); cleavage absent. Conchoidal fracture.

...

Rhodonite
Composition: Manganese silicate, sometimes with some calcium, iron, and magnesium
Color: Red, pink, orange-red, and brownish-red. Massive specimens often have black veins running through them. Some Rhodonite specimens tarnish black or brown upon exposure to air.
Streak: colorless
Hardness: 5.5-6

...

Silver
a soft white precious univalent metallic element having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal

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Sodalite
hardness:5.5-6
spec. gravity:2.14-2.4
streak:colorless
color:many esp. blue
group:silicates
crystal system: cubic

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Topaz
This mineral and gemstone is the birthstone for the month of November. It is a silicate mineral of aluminum and fluorine, and comes in a variety of colors, from blue to straw yellow. Name this, with a rank of 8 on the Mohs Scale.

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Tremolite
hardness: 5-6
specific gravity: 2.9-3.2
streak:whute
color:many esp. white
group:silicates
crys. system:monoclinic

...

Ulexite
Almost always white, and looks like a densely-packed bundle of white threads. It's opaque in one direction, and conducts light in the other. It's fiber-optic abilities gave it the nickname "T.V. rock".

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Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com. Click to see the original works with their full license.

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