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Evolution of Leadership construct and managerial work
Implications for Development
Leadership and Systems thinking in Management discourse

• Yukl Chapter 1
• Barley and Kunda (1992)
• Schwandt and Szabla (2007)
• Sashkin (2010)
• Hollander and Offerman (1990)

Foundation leadership
Five approaches

1. the trait approach,
2. the behavior approach
3. the power-influence approach
4. the situational approach
5. the integrative approach.

Trait Approach

1. personality
2. motives
3. values
4. skills.

Big Five" model (e.g., Digman, 1990; Hough, 1992).
• The five broadly defined personality traits in the taxonomy have somewhat different labels from one version to another. The traits include

1. surgency (or extroversion)
2. dependability (or conscientiousness)
3. agreeableness
4. adjustment (or neuroticism)
5. Intellectance (or openness to experience)

Trait Approach

• People are natural leaders
• Abilities, energy, intuition, foresight

Trait research

• Look for traits that predict emergence as an informal leader in groups
• Look for traits that predict advanced to higher levels of management
• Look for traits related to effective performance but a manager in the current job

trait research
Stogdill Reviews of the Early Research

1. physical characteristics (e.g., height, appearance)
2. aspects of personality (e.g., self-esteem, dominance, emotional stability)
3. aptitudes (e.g., general intelligence, verbal fluency, creativity).

trait research

Stogdill (1948) reviewed 124 trait studies conducted from 1904 to 1948 and found that the pattern of results was consistent with the conception of a leader as someone who acquires status by showing the ability to help the group in attaining its goals.

trait research
McClelland's Research on Managerial Motivation

1. Power
2. Achievement
3. Affiliation

Power

• A person with a high need for power finds great satisfaction in exercising influence over the attitudes, emotions, and behavior of others.
• This type of person enjoys winning an argument, defeating an opponent, eliminating a rival or enemy, and directing the activities of a group.

Achievement

• A person with a high need for achievement obtains satisfaction from:
1. experiencing success in accomplishing a difficult task
2. attaining a standard of excellence
3. developing a better way of doing something
4. being the first person to accomplish a difficult feat

Affiliation

A person with a strong need for affiliation is especially concerned about being liked and accepted and is very sensitive to cues indicating rejection or hostility from others.

Behavior Approach

The behavior approach began in the early 1950s after many researchers became discouraged with the trait approach and began to pay closer attention to what managers actually do on the job.
• The behavior research falls into two general subcategories:
1. how managers spend their time
2. the typical pattern of activities, responsibilities, and functions for managerial jobs

Behavior Approach

• Most research on managerial work uses descriptive methods of data collection:
1. direct observation
2. diaries
3. job description questionnaires
4. anecdotes obtained from interviews.

Power-Influence Approach

• examines influence processes between leaders and other people.
• takes a leader-centered perspective with an implicit assumption that causality is unidirectional (leaders act and followers react).
• seeks to explain leadership effectiveness in terms of the amount and type of power possessed by a leader and how power is exercised.

Situational Approach

• comparative study of two or more situations.
• The dependent variables may be managerial perceptions and attitudes, managerial activities and behavior patterns, or influence processes.

Situational Approach

2. attempts to identify aspects of the situation that "moderate" the relationship of leader attributes (e.g., traits, skills, behavior) to leadership effectiveness.
• The assumption is that different attributes will be effective in different situations, and that the same attribute is not optimal in all situations.
• Theories describing this relationship are sometimes called "contingency theories" of leadership.

Situational Approach

• emphasizes the importance of contextual factors that influence leadership processes.
• Major situational variables include:
1. the characteristics of followers
2. the nature of the work performed by the leader's unit
3. the type of organization
4. the nature of the external environment

Integrative Approach

• involves more than one type of leadership variable.
• In recent years it has become more common for researchers to include two or more types of leadership variables in the same study, but it is still rare to find a theory that includes all of them (i.e., traits, behavior, influence processes, situational variables, and outcomes).

Level of Conceptualization for Leadership Theories

1. an intra-individual process
2. a dyadic process
3. a group process
4. an organizational process

Intra-Individual Theories

• How leader traits and values influence leadership behavior
• How leader skills are related to leader behavior
• How leaders make decisions
• How leaders manage their time
• How leaders are influenced by role expectations and constraints
• How leaders react to feedback and learn from experience
• How leaders can use self-management techniques
• How leaders can use Self-development techniques

Dyadic Theories

• How a leader influences subordinate motivation and task commitment
• How a leader facilitates the work of a subordinate
• How a leader interprets information about a subordinate
• How a leader develops a subordinate's skills and confidence
• How a leader influences subordinate loyalty and trust
• How a leader uses influence tactics with a subordinate, peer, or boss
• How a leader and a subordinate influence each other
• How a leader develops a cooperative exchange relationship with a subordinate

Dyadic Theories

• An example of a dyadic leadership theory is the leader-member exchange (LMX) theory
• which describes how dyadic relationships evolve over time and take different forms, ranging from a casual exchange to a cooperative alliance with shared objectives and mutual trust

Dyadic theories
Graen & Scandura, 1987; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1991

"life cycle model" with three possible stages
1. an initial testing phase in which the leader and subordinate evaluate each other's motives, attitudes, and potential resources to be exchanged, and mutual role expectations are established
2. the exchange arrangement is refined, and mutual trust, loyalty, and respect are developed
3. exchange based on self-interest is transformed into mutual commitment to the mission and objectives of the work unit
the third stage corresponds to transformational leadership, whereas the first stage corresponds to transactional leadership

Two-Stage Attribution Model
Green and Mitchell (1979

described the reaction of a manager to poor performance as a two-stage process.
1. the manager tries to determine the cause of the poor performance;
2. the manager tries to select an appropriate response to correct the problem.

Group-Level Theories

• How different leader-member relations affect each other and team performance
• How leadership is shared in the group or team
• How leaders organize and coordinate the activities of team members
• How leaders influence cooperation and resolve disagreements in the team or unit
• How leaders influence collective efficacy and optimism for the team or unit
• How leaders influence collective learning and innovation in the team or unit
• How leaders influence collective identification of members with the team or unit
• How unit leaders obtain resources and support from the organization and other units

Organizational-Level Theories

• How top executives influence lower-level members
• How leaders are selected at each level (and implications of process for the firm)
• How leaders influence organizational culture
• How leaders influence the efficiency and the cost of internal operations
• How leaders influence human relations and human capital in the organization
• How leaders make decisions about competitive strategy and external initiatives
• How conflicts among leaders are resolved in an organization
• How leaders influence innovation and major change in an organization

Traits and skills

1. the conceptual skills (or "cognitive skills") are primarily concerned with ideas and concepts. Conceptual Skills: General analytical ability, logical thinking, proficiency in concept formation and conceptualization of complex and ambiguous relationships; creativity in idea generation and problem solving; ability to analyze events and perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize opportunities and potential problems (inductive and deductive reasoning)
2. The technical skills are primarily concerned with things. Technical Skills: Knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, and techniques for conducting a specialized activity, and the ability to use tools and equipment relevant to that activity

Nature of Traits and Skills

1. Personality
2. Temperament
3. Needs
4. Motives
5. Values

Personality traits are relatively stable dispositions to behave in a particular way.

1. self-confidence
2. extroversion
3. emotional maturity
4. energy level

motive

• desire for particular types of stimuli or experiences. Psychologists usually differentiate between physiological needs (e.g., hunger, thirst) and social motives such as achievement, esteem, affiliation, power, and independence.
• Needs and motives are important because they influence attention to information and events, and they guide, energize, and sustain behavior.

Values

• are internalized attitudes about what is right and wrong, ethical and unethical, moral and immoral.
• Examples include fairness, justice, honesty, freedom, equality, humanitarianism, loyalty, patriotism, progress, self-fulfillment, excellence, pragmatism, courtesy, politeness, and cooperation.
• Values are important because they influence a person's preferences, perception of problems, and choice of behavior.

skill

the ability to do something in an effective manner. skills are determined jointly by learning and heredity
taxonomies
1. technical skills
2. interpersonal
3. conceptual

technical skills

primarily concerned with things. Technical Skills: Knowledge about methods, processes, procedures, and techniques for conducting a specialized activity, and the ability to use tools and equipment relevant to that activity

the interpersonal skills (or "social skills")

primarily concerned with people. Interpersonal Skills: Knowledge about human behavior and interpersonal processes; ability to understand the feelings, attitudes, and motives of others from what they say and do (empathy, social sensitivity); ability to communicate clearly and effectively (speech fluency, persuasiveness); and ability to establish effective and cooperative relationships (tact, diplomacy, listening skill, knowledge about acceptable social behavior)

conceptual skills (or "cognitive skills")

primarily concerned with ideas and concepts. Conceptual Skills: General analytical ability, logical thinking, proficiency in concept formation and conceptualization of complex and ambiguous relationships; creativity in idea generation and problem solving; ability to analyze events and perceive trends, anticipate changes, and recognize opportunities and potential problems (inductive and deductive reasoning)

conceptual skills (or "cognitive skills")
Barley & Kunda (1992)

five waves of managerial discourse

1. Industrial betterment (normative)
2. Self-management (rational)
3. Welfare capitalism / human relations (normative)
4. Systems rationalism (rational)
5. Organizational culture and quantity (normative)

Industrial betterment

Robert Owens and James Montgomery, from IB to welfare capitalism, improve the mental and moral qualities of working people, building libraries, recreational facilities

Self-management

apply the principles of their disciplines to the organization of production, schemes for improving management coordination and control, cost accounting systems, production control systems, wage payment plans

Welfare capitalism / human relations

entitlements and improved working conditions, vacation, sick leave, health care, testing, ergonomics, group oriented

Systems rationalism

operations research, from military to industry, developing and applying quantitative techniques to problems of planning and control, statistics, finance, functions and management

Organizational culture and quantity

organizations should be viewed as socially constructed systems of meanings, through the work of consultants.

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)
Social Systems and leadership

Three aspects of the evolution
1. Reductionary rational
2. worldview to holism
3. non-rationality

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)
Social Systems

Bertalanffy (1956) in his discussion of General Systems Theory as "a set of elements standing in interaction" (p. 3).
• The social systems discourse throughout the century has been more concerned with:
1. the concepts of survival (goals)
2. causation
3. structures (control and power)

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)
leadership

• the power elite, those leaders thought to have a built-in genius. In the early 1900s, the trait approach explained the notion of "the great man theory of leadership" as people who were born, not made.
• These initial definitions of leadership depicted leaders as commanding and controlling; later theories described leaders as strategic thinkers, teachers, and stewards.
• Throughout the century, the image of the leader as an authority figured slowly dissolved into a representation of the leader as a facilitator.

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)

1. Period One: Work Systems to Cooperative Systems (1900-1940)
2. Period Two: Functionally Driven Systems to Interactive Systems (1940-1970)
3. Period Three: Learning Systems to Complex Systems Theory (1970-2000)

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)
Period One: Work Systems to Cooperative Systems (1900-1940)

Systems Discourse

• from the mechanical and formalized reductionary application of systems theory to a functionalist analysis of the social system.
• The discourse is characterized by the control of production of materials and products and the need to structure a workforce in an industrial age that could provide the labor requirements for a growing population and economy

Schwandt & Szabla (2007)
Period One: Work Systems to Cooperative Systems (1900-1940)

leadership Discourse

• Leadership thought in the early 1900s was dominated by the "great man"4 theory.
• The basic premise of this theory, which originally was postulated by Thomas Carlyle (1907) in his writings on the theory of the hero, was that men are created not equal.
• In an analysis of Carlyle's work, Lehman (1928) construed that "there is no democracy in the realm of the intellect; men have widely differing holds on their environments through complex instrumentality of hand and head and heart" (p. 5).

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

• Self
• Skills
• system

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Self

• Confidence
• Need for Power
• Cause-effect Thinking

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Skills

• Communicating
• Building Trust
• Empowering Actions

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations


system

• Culture
• Distributed Leadership
• Self-Organization

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Self-Confidence

• Conscientiousness incorporates a sense of self-control, that is, of one's ability to take actions that produce the outcomes and results one desires.
• It reflects one's sense of being in control of what happens rather than being controlled by circumstances or by others.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Need for Power (ii Pow)

• The social psychologist David McClelland described how development of the need for power, for control over one's environment and one's life, is related to an individual's personal development, from infancy through childhood to adulthood.
• He described the infant as focused on the need for closeness to the mother, since it is through the mother that all of a child's needs are met, at least initially.
• The need for affiliation develops through the very young child's attachment to the mother, and the attachment process itself is crucial if one is to live successfully in a social environment, that is, among others.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Cause-effect thinking

Sociologists and those who study organizations as systems rather than in terms of individuals and groups often see leadership as the development of a strategy by a top management team.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Neuroscience Applications

• Development of the human brain can be considered, broadly speaking, in terms of three overlapping stages.
• The three aspects of brain development were first identified by the neurologist Dr. Paul McLean who for many years led a neuroscience lab at NIH

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Skills

Three skills are especially important in the 3S Model:
1. Communication of complex ideas clearly as well as well as getting across values and beliefs;
2. Consistent and credible actions that build trust;
3. Creating empowering opportunities for followers.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Postmodernism

• Postmodernism is essentially a way of looking at the world based on the view that subjectivity and interpretation are essential elements of existence.
• In this sense postmodernism is more a philosophy than a set of facts. It does, however, prove especially useful for understanding the key to leadership—including distributed leadership.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

Postmernism

• Postmodernism is essentially a way of looking at the world based on the view that subjectivity and interpretation are essential elements of existence.
• In this sense postmodernism is more a philosophy than a set of facts. It does, however, prove especially useful for understanding the key to leadership—including distributed leadership.

Marshall Sashkin
The 3S Model of Transformational Leadership:
A New Approach to Understanding Leadership in Organizations

The System

The 3S Model points out that transformational leaders attend to and act on three system characteristics:
1. Culture of the organization, the shared values and beliefs that drive and guide the actions of organization members (agents);
2. Agency and distributed leadership, the independent, self-directed, and to a degree unpredictable actions of individual organization members and groups of organization members, taking on leadership roles on the basis of their own values and self-interests;
3. Self-Organizing Systems, the emergence of which is outcome of the interaction between culture and agency.

Hollander rand Offerman (1990)
Power and leadership organizations

Concepts of empowerment and power sharing reflect a shift from a leader dominate view to a broader one of follower involvement in expanding power

Hollander rand Offerman (1990)
Power and leadership organizations

• Participative decision making (PDM), subordinates influences strategies
• Distributing power: delegation in decision making (1) individual member making decisions

Foundations" - 4 Traditional Conceptions of Leadership:
1. Traits & Skills
2. Participation
3. Contingency and situational
4. Relational and Transformational

• Yukl chapter 16, 3-9
• Schwandt (2005)
• Graen and Uhl Bien (1995)
• Vroom and Jago (2007)
• Bennis (2007)

Yukl chapter 16

...

Power and influence

• Influence is the essence of leadership
• Much of the activity of formal leaders involves attempts to influence the attitudes and behavior or people
• More influence to change strategy
• Less when people to change have same objectives and motivated
• Power: formal authority, control over distribution of rewards punishment

Explanatory constructs at three levels of conceptualization

• Dyadic
• Small group or team
• organization

Trust and cooperation

• Dyadic include trust and cooperation influence
• Lmx Graen and Uhl Bien (1995)
• Path-goal House and Mitchell (1974)
• Transformational leadership Avolo and Bass (19950
• High-level leadership (Blake and Mounton (1987)

Social identification

• Personal identification by a subordinate with the leader providers potential influence over the subordinate
• Charismatic leadership theory, personal identification is one explanation for a subordinate for a subordinate loyalty to already Conger (1998)

empowerment

• Empowerment involves autonomy, shared responsibility, and influence in making important decisions.
• Similar concepts of empowerment have been used at all three conceptual levels to explain effective leadership (Seibert, Silver, & Randolph, 2004; Spreitzer, 1986).
• In dyadic theories empowerment is primarily a result of a leader's use of delegation or consultation with individual subordinates (e.g.,Vroom & Yetton, 1973).

Shared Beliefs and Values (Culture)

• Organizational culture is usually defined as the shared values and beliefs of members (Schein, 1992; Trice & Beyer, 1991).
• Cultural values can enhance the performance of an organization if they are consistent with the types of processes needed to accomplish the mission and adapt to internal and external challenges (Gordon & DiTomaso, 1992; Kotter & Heskett, 1992).
• For example, shared values such as flexibility, creativity, and entrepreneurial initiative can facilitate innovation and organizational learning (Baer & Frese, 2003).
• Shared values about reliability, meeting deadlines, error- free performance, controlling costs, and responsible use of resources, and adherence to best practices and standard procedures can enhance efficiency (Miron, Erez, & Naveh, 2004).

Biases in the Conceptualization of Leadership

• Much previous research and theory on leadership emphasized the primary importance of a single, heroic leader.
• It is a basic postulate of most recent theories of transformational or charismatic leadership that an effective leader will influence followers to make self-sacrifices and exert exceptional effort.
• Influence is unidirectional, and it flows from the leader to followers.

Emerging Conceptions of Leadership

• Shared and Distributed Leadership
• Relational Leadership
• Social networks
• Emergent processes in complexity theory

Shared and Distributed Leadership

• The theory and research on leadership has long recognized that effective leaders empower others to participate in the process of interpreting events, solving problems, and making decisions (Argyris, 1964; Likert, 1967).
• The emphasis in most of the traditional approaches is on finding ways to make an individual leader more effective.

Distributed Leadership

• power sharing, and political activities are inevitable in organizations, not something determined by a single all-powerful leader.
• Proponents of this perspective recognize that the actions of any individual leader are less important than the collective leadership provided by many members of the organization, including both formal and informal leaders (Day, Gronn, & Salas, 2004).

Relational Leadership

• How leaders use relations-oriented behaviors to improve relationships was described in Chapter 4.
• How leaders develop favorable exchange relationships over time with individual subordinates was described in Chapter 8.
• How leaders can develop a network of outside contacts and supporters was described in Chapter 3.
• How leaders influence followers to identify with them and cooperate in achieving shared objectives was described in Chapters 2 and 9.
• How relationships moderate the effects of leader behavior on subordinate motivation and performance was described in Chapter 6.

CHAPTER 3

Mintzberg's Managerial Roles

Information-Processing Roles
• Liaison
• Monitor
• Spokesperson
Decision-Making Roles
• Entrepreneur
• Disturbance Handler
• Resource AIlocator
• Negotiator
Interpersonal Roles
• Liaison
• Figurehead
• Leader

Role Conflicts

• The discussion of characteristic managerial roles emphasizes the types of activities commonly expected of managers, regardless of the type of position.
• However, many different people ("role senders") in an organization exert pressure on the manager to conform with their beliefs about the proper way to behave ("role expectations").

Situational Determinants

• There are differences in the pattern of demands, constraints, and choices for different types of managerial jobs, depending on aspects of the situation such as the type of organization and the nature of the work.
• Based on Stewart's research, three factors were found to be important for comparing managerial jobs with respect to behavioral requirements.
1. Pattern relationships
2. Work pattern
3. exposure

CHAPTER 4
Perspectives on Effective Leadership Behavior

• descriptive research that was designed to identify typical activity patterns of managers, not to determine how effective leaders differ in behavior from ineffective leaders.
• The current chapter will review research on the types of leadership behavior most likely to influence subordinate satisfaction and performance.
• The methods used for this research include behavior description questionnaires, laboratory and field experiments, and critical incidents.

Leadership Behaviors studies

Ohio State Leadership Studies

• Questionnaire research on effective leadership behavior was strongly influenced by the early research at Ohio State University during the 1950s.
• The initial task of the researchers was to identify categories of relevant leadership behavior and develop questionnaires to measure how often a leader used these behaviors.

Leadership Behaviors

• Factor analysis of the questionnaire responses indicated that subordinates perceived their supervisor's behavior primarily in terms of two broadly defined categories labeled "consideration" and "initiating structure."
• The two types of behavior were relatively independent, which means that a leader's use of one behavior was not necessarily the same as his or her use of the other behavior.

Leadership Behaviors

Consideration.

• involves leader concern for accomplishing the task.
• The leader defines and structures his or her own role and the roles of subordinates toward attainment of task goals.

Leadership Behaviors

Michigan Leadership Studies

• A second major program of research on leadership behavior was carried out by researchers at the University of Michigan at approximately the same time as the Ohio State leadership studies.
• The focus of the Michigan research was the identification of relationships among leader behavior, group processes, and measures of group performance.
• The initial research was a series of field studies with a variety of leaders, including section managers in an insurance company (Katz, Maccoby, & Morse, 1950), supervisors in a large manufacturing company (Katz & Kahn, 1952), and supervisors of railroad section gangs (Katz, Maccoby, Gurin, & Floor, 1951).

Leadership Behaviors

1. Task-oriented behavior
2. Relations-oriented behavior
3. Participative Leadership

Leadership Behaviors


Task-oriented behavior

• Effective managers did not spend their time and effort doing the same kind of work as their subordinates. Instead, the more effective managers concentrated on task-oriented functions such as planning and scheduling the work, coordinating subordinate activities, and providing necessary supplies, equipment, and technical assistance.

Leadership Behaviors


Relations-oriented behavior

The effective managers were also more supportive and helpful with subordinates. Supportive behaviors that were correlated with effective leadership included showing trust and confidence, acting friendly and considerate, trying to understand subordinate problems, helping to develop subordinates and further their careers, keeping subordinates informed, showing appreciation for subordinates' ideas, allowed considerable autonomy in how subordinates do the work, and providing recognition for subordinates' contributions and accomplishments.

Leadership Behaviors


Participative Leadership

• Effective managers used more group supervision instead of supervising each subordinate separately. Group meetings facilitate subordinate participation in decision making, improve communication, promote cooperation, and facilitate conflict resolution.
• The role of the manager in group meetings should be primarily to guide the discussion and keep it supportive, constructive, and oriented toward problem solving.

Limitations of Survey

Research on Leader Behavior
Survey research with questionnaires is by far the most common method used to study the relationship between leadership behavior and various antecedents (e.g., leader traits, attitudes) or outcomes of this behavior (e.g., subordinate satisfaction and performance).

Biases in Behavior Description Questionnaires

Behavior description questionnaires are susceptible to several types of bias and error (Luthans & Lockwood, 1984; Schriesheim & Kerr, 1977a; Uleman, 1991). One source of error is the use of ambiguous items that can be interpreted in different ways by different respondents. Most leadership questionnaires have a fixed-response format that requires respondents to think back over a period of several months or years and indicate how often or how much a leader used the behavior described in an item.

The High-High Leader

• The extensive research on task-oriented and relations-oriented leadership during the 1960s gave rise to the idea of the "high-high" leader.
• Blake and Mouton (1964) proposed a model called the managerial grid to describe managers in terms of concern for people and concern for production.

Chapter 5
Participative Leadership, Delegation, and Empowerment

• Participative leadership involves the use of various decision procedures that allow other people some influence over the leader's decisions.
• Other terms commonly used to refer to aspects of participative leadership include consultation, joint decision making, power sharing, decentralization, empowerment, and democratic management.
• Participative leadership can be regarded as a distinct type of behavior, although it may be used in conjunction with specific task and relations behaviors (Likert, 1967; Yukl, 1971).

Varieties of Participation
four decision procedures as distinct and meaningful

1. Autocratic Decision: The manager makes a decision alone without asking for the opinions or suggestions of other people, and these people have no direct influence on the decision; there is no participation.
2. Consultation: The manager asks other people for their opinions and ideas, then makes the decision alone after seriously considering their suggestions and concerns.
3. Joint Decision: The manager meets with others to discuss the decision problem and make a decision together; the manager has no more influence over the final decision than any other participant.
4. Delegation: The manager gives an individual or group the authority and responsibility for making a decision; the manager usually specifies limits within which the final choice must fall, and prior approval may or may not be required before the decision can be implemented.

Participative leadership

Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1958;

two varieties of autocratic decision, one in which the leader merely announces an autocratic decision ("tell" style), and the other in which the leader uses influence tactics such as rational persuasion ("sell" style).

Participative leadership

Tannenbaum & Schmidt, 1958;
The same writers also distinguished three varieties of consultation:

1. the leader presents a decision made without prior consultation, but is willing to modify it in the face of strong objections and concerns
2. the leader presents a tentative proposal and actively encourages people to suggest ways to improve it
3. the leader presents a problem and asks others to participate in diagnosing it and developing solutions, but then makes the decision alone. Vroom and Yetton (1973) distinguish between consulting with individuals and consulting with a group.

Consequences of Participative Leadership

• This section of the chapter examines the potential benefits of participation and explanatory processes for the effects of participation (see Figure 5-2).
• Situational variables that enhance or limit the effects of participation are discussed later in the chapter as part of the theories developed to explain why this form of leadership is not effective in all situations.

Research on Effects of Participative Leadership

• Lewin, Lippitt, and White (1939) and Coch and French (1948), social scientists have been interested in studying the consequences of participative leadership.
• After supportive and task-oriented behavior, the largest amount of behavior research has been on participative leadership.
• The research has employed a variety of methods, including laboratory experiments, field experiments, correlational field studies, and qualitative case studies involving interviews with effective leaders and their subordinates.
• Most of the studies involved participation by subordinates, and the criteria of leader effectiveness were usually subordinate satisfaction and performance.

Participative leadership
Normative Decision Model

• The importance of using decision procedures that are appropriate for the situation has been recognized for some time.
• Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) noted that a leader's choice of decision procedures reflects forces in the leader, forces in the subordinates, and forces in the situation.

Participative leadership
Normative Decision Model

Maier (1963) pointed out the need for leaders to consider both the quality requirements of a decision and the likelihood of subordinate acceptance before choosing a decision procedure

Participative leadership
Vroom and Yetton Model

• two varieties of autocratic decision (Al and All)
• , two varieties of consultation (CI and CII),
• and one variety of joint decision making by leader and subordinates
• as a group (Gil).

CHAPTER 6
Early Contingency Theories of Effective Leadership
six contingency theories of leadership:

1. path-goal theory
2. situational leadership theory
3. leader substitutes theory
4. the multiple-linkage model
5. LPC contingency theory
6. cognitive resources theory.

Situational Variables

The relationship between leader LPC score and effectiveness depends on a complex situational variable called situational favorability (or situational control), which is defined as the extent to which the situation gives a leader control over subordinates.

Three aspects of the situation are considered.

1. Leader-member relations: The extent to which subordinates are loyal, and relations with subordinates are friendly and cooperative.
2. Position power. The extent to which the leader has authority to evaluate subordinate performance and administer rewards and punishments.
3. Task structure: The extent to which standard operating procedures are in place to accomplish the task, along with a detailed description of the finished product or service and objective indicators of how well the task is being performed.

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

• The path-goal theory of leadership was developed to explain how the behavior of a leader influences the satisfaction and performance of subordinates.
• Building on an early version of the theory by Evans (1970), House (1971) formulated a more elaborate version that included situational variables.

Contingencies theories
Explanatory Processes

• A motivation theory called expectancy theory (Georgopoulos, Mahoney, & Jones, 1957; Vroom, 1964) is used to explain how a leader can influence subordinate satisfaction and effort.
• Expectancy theory describes work motivation in terms of a rational choice process in which a person decides how much effort to devote to the job at a given point of time.

Contingencies theories
Leader Behaviors

1. Supportive leadership: Giving consideration to the needs of subordinates, displaying concern for their welfare, and creating a friendly climate in the work unit.

Contingencies theories
Leader Behaviors

2. Directive leadership: Letting subordinates know what they are expected to do, giving specific guidance, asking subordinates to follow rules and procedures, and scheduling and coordinating the work.

Contingencies theories
Leader Behaviors

3. Participative leadership: Consulting with subordinates and taking their opinions and suggestions into account.

Contingencies theories
Leader Behaviors

4. Achievement-oriented leadership: Setting challenging goals, seeking better performance, emphasizing excellence, and showing confidence that subordinates will attain high standards.

Situational Leadership Theory

• Hersey and Blanchard (1977) proposed a contingency theory that specifies the appropriate type of leadership behavior for different levels of subordinate "maturity" in relation to the work.
• A high-maturity subordinate has both the ability and confidence to do a task, whereas a low-maturity subordinate lacks ability and self- confidence.

Situational Leadership Theory

1. For a low-maturity subordinate (M1), the leader should use substantial task- oriented behavior and be directive in defining roles, clarifying standards and procedures, and monitoring progress on attainment of objectives.
2. As subordinate maturity increases up to a moderate level (M2 and M3), the leader can decrease the amount of task-oriented behavior and provide more relations-oriented behavior. The leader should act supportive, consult with the subordinate, and provide praise and attention. For a high-maturity subordinate (M4), the leader should use a low level of task-oriented and relations-oriented behaviors.

Multiple-Linkage Model

The multiple-linkage model (Yukl, 1981, 1989) builds upon earlier models of leadership and group effectiveness, including path-goal theory, leadership substitutes theory, and the Vroom-Yetton normative decision theory.

The four types of variables

1. managerial behaviors
2. intervening variables
3. criterion variables
4. situational variables

intervening variables

The six intervening variables in the model are based on earlier research and theory on determinants of individual and group performance (e.g., Hackman, Brousseau, & Weiss, 1976; Likert, 1967; McGrath, 1984; Porter & Lawler, 1968).

Task commitment

1The extent to which unit members strive to attain a high level of performance and show a high degree of personal commitment to unit task objectives.

Ability and role clarity

The extent to which unit members understand their individual job responsibilities, know what to do, and have the skills to do it.

Organization of the work

The extent to which effective performance strategies are used to attain unit task objectives and the work is organized to ensure efficient utilization of personnel, equipment, and facilities.

Cooperation and mutual trust

the extent to which group members trust each other, share information and ideas, help each other, and identify with the work unit.

Resources and support

The extent to which the group has the budgetary funds, tools, equipment, supplies, personnel, and facilities needed to do the work, and necessary information or assistance from other units.

External coordination

The extent to which activities of the work unit are synchronized with the interdependent activities in other parts of the organization and other organizations (e.g., suppliers, clients, joint venture partners).

Leader vs follower
Centered theory

1. Empowerment theory describes how followers view their ability to influence important events (see Chapter 5).
2. Attribution theory describes how followers view a leader's influence on events and outcomes (see Chapter 8).
3. other theories explain how followers can actively influence their work role and relationship with the leader, rather than being passive recipients of leader influence
4. The leader substitutes theory (see Chapter 6) describes aspects of the situation and follower attributes that make a hierarchical leader less important.
5. The emotional contagion theory of charisma (see Chapter 9) describes how followers influence each other.
6. theories of self-managed groups emphasize sharing of leadership functions among the members of a group; in this approach, the followers are also the leaders (see Chapter 12).

Descriptive theory

Descriptive theories explain leadership processes, describe the typical activities of leaders, and explain why certain behaviors occur in particular situations.

Prescriptive Theory

Prescriptive theories specify what leaders must do to become effective, and they identify any necessary conditions for using a particular type of behavior effectively. A prescriptive theory is especially useful when a wide discrepancy exists between what leaders typically do and what they should do to be most effective.

A universal theory can be either descriptive or prescriptive.

A descriptive universal theory may describe typical functions performed to some extent by all types of leaders

A universal theory can be either descriptive or prescriptive.

a prescriptive universal theory may specify functions all leaders must perform to be effective.

A contingency theory describes some aspect of leadership that applies to some situations but not to others. Contingency theories can also be either descriptive or prescriptive.

A descriptive contingency theory may explain how leader behavior typically varies from one situation to another

A contingency theory describes some aspect of leadership that applies to some situations but not to others. Contingency theories can also be either descriptive or prescriptive.

a prescriptive contingency theory may specify the most effective behavior in each type of situation.

CHAPTER 7
Power and Influence

• Influence is the essence of leadership.
• To be effective as a leader, it is necessary to influence people to carry out requests, support proposals, and implement decisions. In large organizations, the effectiveness of managers depends on influence over superiors and peers as well as influence over subordinates. Influence in one direction tends to enhance influence in other directions.

Conceptions of Power and Influence

Terms such as power and authority have been used in different ways by different writers, thereby creating considerable conceptual confusion

Power

• The concept of "power" is useful for understanding how people are able to influence each other in organizations (Mintzberg, 1983; Pfeffer, 1981, 1992).
• Power involves the capacity of one party (the "agent") to influence another party (the "target").

Authority

Authority involves the rights, prerogatives, obligations, and duties associated with particular positions in an organization or social system. A leader's authority usually includes the right to make particular types of decisions for the organization

Influence Processes

The psychological explanation for the influence of one person on another involves the motives and perceptions of the target in relation to the actions of the agent and the context in which the interaction occurs

Kelman (1958) proposed three different types of influence processes:

1. instrumental compliance
2. internalization
3. personal identification.

Instrumental Compliance.

a) The target person carries out a requested action for the purpose of obtaining a tangible reward or avoiding a punishment controlled by the agent. The motivation for the behavior is purely instrumental; the only reason for compliance is to gain some tangible benefit from the agent. The level of effort is likely to be the minimum amount necessary to gain the rewards or avoid the punishment.

Internalization.

bThe target person becomes committed to support and implement proposals espoused by the agent because they appear to be intrinsically desirable and correct in relation to the target's values, beliefs, and self-image. In effect, the agent's proposal (e.g., an objective, plan, strategy, policy, procedure) becomes linked to the target person's underlying values and beliefs. Commitment occurs regardless of whether any tangible benefit is expected, and the target's loyalty is to the ideas themselves, not to the agent who communicates them.

Personal Identification.

c) The target person imitates the agent's behavior or adopts the same attitudes to please the agent and to be like the agent. The motivation for the target probably involves the target person's needs for acceptance and esteem. By doing things to gain approval from the agent, the target is able to maintain a relationship that satisfies a need for acceptance. Maintaining a close relationship with an attractive agent may help to satisfy the target person's need for esteem from other people, and becoming more like an attractive agent helps the target person maintain a more favorable self-image.

French and Raven (1959) developed a taxonomy to classify different types of power according to their source.

a) Reward Power:
b) Legitimate Power:
c) Expert Power:
d) Referent Power:

a) Reward Power:

a) Reward Power: The target person complies in order to obtain rewards controlled by the agent. Coercive Power: The target person complies in order to avoid punishments controlled by the agent.

b) Legitimate Power:

b) Legitimate Power: The target person complies because he/she believes the agent has the right to make the request and the target person has the obligation to comply

c) Expert Power:

c) Expert Power: The target person complies because he/she believes that the agent has special knowledge about the best way to do something.

d) Referent Power:

d) Referent Power: The target person complies because he/she admires or identifies with the agent and wants to gain the agent's approval.

Yukl and Falbe (1991) showed that these two types of power are relatively independent, and each includes several distinct but partially overlapping components

1. Position power
2. Personal power

Position power

includes potential influence derived from legitimate authority, control over resources and rewards, control over punishments, control over information, and control over the physical work environment.

Personal power

includes potential influence derived from task expertise, and potential influence based on friendship and loyalty. Position and personal determinants of power interact in complex ways, and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between them..

Coercive Power

• A leader's coercive power over subordinates is based on authority over punishments, which varies greatly across different types of organizations.
• The coercive power of military and political leaders is usually greater than that of corporate managers.

Information Power

• This type of power involves both the access to vital information and control over its distribution to others (Pettigrew, 1972).
• Some access to information results from a person's position in the organization's communication network.

Ecological Power

Control over the physical environment, technology, and organization of the work provides an opportunity for indirect influence over other people.

Social Exchange Theory

The most fundamental form of social interaction is an exchange of benefits or favors, which can include not only material benefits but also psychological benefits such as expressions of approval, respect, esteem, and affection. Individuals learn to engage in social exchanges early in their childhood, and they develop expectations about reciprocity and equity in these exchanges.

CHAPTER 9
Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

...

Two Early Theories
Charisma

• Max Weber. Charisma is a Greek word that means "divinely inspired gift," such as the ability to perform miracles or predict 'future events. Weber (1947) used the term to describe a form of influence based not on tradition or formal authority but rather on follower perceptions that the leader is endowed with exceptional qualities.
• According to Weber, charisma occurs during a social crisis, when a leader emerges with a radical vision that offers a solution to the crisis and attracts followers who believe in the vision.
• The followers experience some successes that make the vision appear attainable, and they come to perceive the leader as extraordinary.

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