Counseling Theories Exam II Questions

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Behavior therapy is associated with all but one of the following:

a philosophical view of human behavior.

Behavior therapy assumes that:

behavior is learned.

Behavior therapy is characterized by:

a focus on overt specific behavior.
a formulation of precise treatment goals.
the design of an appropriate treatment plan.
the objective assessment of the results of therapy.

Behavior therapy is based on:

applying the experimental method to the therapeutic process.

Michael believes that he will be able to improve his public speaking skills after completing a speech course at school. Based on social-cognitive theory, one might observe that Michael is not lacking in:

c. self-efficacy.

The main goal of behavior therapy is:

eliminating maladaptive learning and providing for more effective learning.

Which is not true of the relationship between therapist and client in behavior therapy?

The therapist is solely responsible for setting treatment goals.

True of relationship between therapist and client:
The relationship is considered collaborative.
Therapist and client work together in a warm and flexible manner.
The therapeutic relationship is an important factor in treatment outcomes.

What is the function of the behavior therapist?

a. to provide modeling for the client
b. to provide a collaborative therapeutic environment
c. to assess specific behavior problems
d. to provide reinforcement for clients
e. all of these.

Which of the following interventions is not associated with the third wave of behavior therapy?

relaxation training

Third wave therapies: DBT, ACT, and MBCBT

Which of the following is not true regarding behavior therapy?

The client is merely passive while the therapist uses techniques.

All of the following are true about social skills training except:

It requires clients to engage in catharsis.

True about Social Skills Training:
It is a psychoeducational approach to interpersonal growth.
It involves modeling and reinforcement techniques.
It uses role playing exercises to simulate social situations

Which anxiety reduction technique involves creating a hierarchy of the client's fearful experiences?

systematic desensitization

Behavior therapists look to the current environmental events that maintain problem behaviors and help clients produce behavior change by changing environmental events, through a process called:

a. functional assessment.

Behavior therapy is suited for:

a. individual therapy.
b. group therapy.
c. institutions and clinics.
d. classroom learning situations.
e. all of these.

In the ABC model, the A stands for:

b. antecedents

Which statement is not true?

Contemporary behavior therapy is increasingly concerned with behavioral control.

True Statements:

Behavioral and humanistic approaches cannot be reconciled.
Current behavior therapy is grounded on a deterministic view of persons.
Behavioral methods can be used to attain humanistic ends.
Contemporary behavior therapy focuses on how people are determined by their social and cultural environments.

Which of the following is not a basic characteristic of behavior therapy?

The therapist is manipulative and controlling.

Who has done most of the work in the area of modeling?

Albert Bandura

B. F. Skinner is associated with which of the following trends in the behavioral approach?

operant conditioning

Which of the following is not true about how behavior therapists function in the therapeutic setting?

a. They use techniques such as summarizing, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questioning.
b. They focus on specific aspects of problems.
c. They systematically assess for information about all aspects of the problem.
d. They serve as a model for the client.
e. All of these are true.

Phil has been in behavior therapy to address his fear of heights. The treatment will not be considered complete until:

a. Phil transfers what he learns in therapy to his everyday life and takes actual steps to confront his fear.

What is not a part of the steps in a self-directed change program?

exploration of one's family constellation

Which of the following is not one of the seven major areas of personality functioning described by the acronym "BASIC ID"?

aspirations

Which of the following is true about "technical eclecticism" in multimodal therapy?

Therapists use techniques from various theoretical models without subscribing to the theory.

In terms of ethical accountability, behavior therapy:

provides a basis for responsible practice.

Which of the following behavior therapists is credited with developing the social cognitive learning model, doing much work on observational learning and modeling, and writing about self-efficacy?

Bandura

Which of the following distinguishes the cognitive trend in behavior therapy from the trends of classical and operant conditioning?

the integration of thoughts and feelings in the process of behavior change

Multimodal therapy is a therapeutic approach that is grounded on:

social learning theory.

Haley has difficulty turning down dates and consistently allows men to take advantage of her. A behavioral intervention that may help Haley establish appropriate boundaries with others and speak up for herself is:

c. assertion training.

Which of the following clinical strategies is not necessarily employed during assertion training?

relaxation

Which of the following would not be considered a feature of a good self-contract?

It is a verbal agreement between client and therapist.

A limitation of behavior therapy is:

a.the overemphasis on feeling and the neglect of cognition.
b.the overemphasis upon insight.
c.the lack of empirical research validating its techniques.
d.the need for long-term treatment to effect change.
e. none of these

During the second wave of behavior therapy, therapists:

a. continued to emphasize empirically supported treatments.
b.increased their focus on the role of emotion in behavior change.
c.adopted a stronger biological perspective.
d.applied behavior therapy principles to prevention of disease and illness.
e. all of these

When practicing mindfulness:

a. clients learn to focus on one thing at a time and to bring their attention back to the present moment when distractions arise.
b. clients develop an attitude of curiosity and compassion to present experience.
c. clients learn how to be aware of themselves without being judgmental.
d. clients train themselves to intentionally focus on their present experience while at the same time achieving a distance from it.
e. all of these.

Wolpe's systematic desensitization is based on the principles of:

classical conditioning.

The situation in which behaviors are influenced by the consequences that follow them is:

operant conditioning.

Skinner's view of shaping behavior is based on the principle of:

operant conditioning.

______involves the removal of unpleasant stimuli from a situation once a certain behavior has occurred.

Negative reinforcement

In dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), skills are taught in four modules. Which among the following is not one of the modules listed in the text?

e. relapse prevention

_________ is a key pioneer of clinical behavior therapy because of his broadening of its conceptual bases and development of multimodal therapy.

Arnold Lazarus.

All of the following are characteristics of the behavioral approaches except:

Behavior therapy employs the same procedures to every client with a particular dysfunctional behavior.

In conducting a behavioral assessment, the client's functioning is taken into account in which area(s)?

a. emotional dimensions
b. cognitive dimensions
c. behavioral dimensions
d. interpersonal dimensions
e. all of these

What would be the most accurate way of describing mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) to a friend or colleague?

a. MBSR consists of the notion that much of our distress and suffering results from continually wanting things to be different from how they actually are.
b. MBSR aims to assist people in learning how to live more fully in the present rather than ruminating about the past or being overly concerned about the future.
c. MBSR does not actively teach cognitive modification techniques, nor does it label certain cognitions as "dysfunctional," because this is not consistent with the nonjudgmental attitude one strives to cultivate in mindfulness practice.
d. The approach adopted in the MBSR program is to develop the capacity for sustained directed attention through formal meditation practice.
e. All of these.

Behavior therapists tend to:

a. be active and directive.
b. function as consultants.
c. function as problem solvers.
d. all of these

All of the following are steps in the use of systematic desensitization except for:

hypnosis.

Techniques used in mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy include all but:

flooding.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) integrates techniques from:

b. mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavior therapy.

Self-management strategies include:

a. self-monitoring.
b. self-award.
c. self-contracting.
d. stimulus control.
e. all of these

If your client wanted to change a behavior, for instance, learning to control smoking, drinking, or eating, which behavioral technique would be most appropriate to employ?

self-management

Techniques that differentiate behavioral group therapy from other models of group work include all but:

a time-limited intervention.

In acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), another way to describe the term "acceptance" is:

b. nonjudgmental awareness.

Lazarus argues in favor of:

technical eclecticism.

Sergio is co-leading a social skills group for children with Aspergers. He and his co-leader must collect data on group members' progress:

b. before, during, and after all interventions.

The premise of the exposure-based therapies is that anxiety is reduced through:

pairing a feared stimulus with a competing, calming response.

In group settings, behavior therapists provide all of the following except:

little direct feedback.

The key principle in applied behavior analysis is:

a. to use the least aversive means to change behavior.

In vivo flooding consists of:

intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli.

EMDR is typically used to help clients:

restructure their cognitions regarding traumatic events.

Third-generation behavior therapies have been developed that center around five interrelated core themes. Which of these is not one of the core themes?

d. a more precise focus on psychopathology

Which is not true of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)?

DBT is a blend of Adlerian concepts and behavioral techniques.

The founder of rational emotive behavior therapy is:

Albert Ellis.

Rational emotive behavior therapy belongs to which category of therapy?

cognitive-behavior/action oriented

The cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy stresses:

thinking, judging, analyzing, and doing.

The correct components of the A-B-C theory of personality are:

activating event, belief, consequence.

REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of:

irrational thinking and behaving.

According to REBT, what is the core of most emotional disturbance?

blame

REBT contends that people:

do not need to be accepted and loved.

Which of the following statements does not reflect one of Ellis's three basic musts?

"I must be kind to others or else I won't be a good person."

Three basic musts:

"If others fail to treat me well, they must be miserable human beings."
"Others must like me and appreciate my talents or else I am a failure."
"I must get what I want when I want it or I won't be able to stand it."

REBT employs what kind of method to help people resolve their emotional and behavioral problems?

the empirical method

The main therapeutic goal of REBT is:

a. to teach clients how to recognize which ego state they are in.
b. to make the unconscious conscious.
c. to assist the client in becoming aware of his or her "being-in-the-world."
d. to challenge the client in making both a value judgment and moral decision about the quality of his or her behavior.
e. none of these

The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to:

challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life.

REBT can best be considered as:

a. an educative process.
b. a didactic process.
c. a process challenging ideas and thinking.
d. a teaching/learning process.
e. all of these.

Who developed a cognitive behavioral program for diet and maintenance and has written trade books about this topic?

Judith Beck

The role of the client in rational emotive behavior therapy is like that of a:

student or learner.

Which method is not employed in REBT?

free association

Which theorist is known for his or her abrasive, humorous, and flamboyant style?

Albert Ellis

Cognitive restructuring plays an important role in whose approach to therapy?

Judith Beck

A feature of REBT that distinguishes it from other cognitive-behavioral therapies is:

its systematic exposition of irrational beliefs that result in emotional and behavioral disturbance.

Beck's cognitive therapy involves all of the options below except:

conducting a lifestyle assessment.

Beck's cognitive therapy:

helping clients recognize and discard self defeating thinking.
looking at a client's "internal dialogue."
correcting erroneous beliefs.

Sonia, a recovering alcoholic, is going through relapse prevention. During this process, it is likely that she will:

be taught to view any lapses that occur as "learning opportunities" rather than "catastrophic failures."

Which of the following is the correct order of the three phases of Meichenbaum's stress-inoculation program?

conceptual-rehearsal-application

According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because:

we think of simple preferences as dire needs.

An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from:

the internal repetition of irrational sentences.

In REBT, what method is taught to clients to help them challenge irrational beliefs?

disputational method

Which of the following is true about the relationship between a client and a rational emotive behavior therapist?

It is characterized by full acceptance and tolerance.

Which of the following REBT techniques helps a client gradually learn to deal with anxiety and challenge basic irrational thinking?

cognitive homework

According to REBT, it is important to change the way one uses language because:

a. imprecise language is one of the causes of distorted thinking processes.
b. language shapes thinking and behavior.
c. language shapes feelings.
d. all of these

The REBT technique that involves having clients imagine themselves in situations where they feel inappropriate feelings is called:

rational-emotive imagery.

Which of the following is not true about role playing in REBT?

It is a way of surfacing unfinished business.

Which REBT technique involves having the client do the very thing they avoid because of "what people might think?"

shame-attacking exercises

All of the following are true as they apply to self-instructional therapy, except that:

it is an outgrowth of an approach used widely by crisis intervention workers called self-induced change therapy.

Which of the following is not part of the five-step treatment procedure used in a coping-skills program?

evaluating the anxiety level of the client by using both physiological and psychological tests

All of the following are cognitive methods of REBT except for:

shame-attacking exercises.

Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy?

It asserts that irrational beliefs lead to emotional problems.

One of the main ways that Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT is that in Beck's approach, more so than in Ellis's approach:

the quality of the therapeutic relationship is basic to the therapy process.

In Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification, what is given primary importance?

inner speech

Stress inoculation training consists of all of the following except:

tapping into the unconscious realm.

One strength of cognitive behavioral therapy group counseling is that:

emphasis is placed on symptom prevention.

In cognitive therapy, techniques are designed to:

assist individuals in making alternative interpretations of events in their daily living.

The type of cognitive error that involves thinking and interpreting in all-or-nothing terms, or in categorizing experiences in either/or extremes, is known as:

polarized thinking.

Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT in that Beck's approach emphasizes:

a. more of a Socratic dialogue.
b. helping clients to discover their misconceptions by themselves.
c. working with the client in collaborative ways.
d. more structure in the therapy process.
e. all of these

Beck's cognitive therapy has been most widely applied to the treatment of:

depression.

Which stage is not included in Meichenbaum's model for stress inoculation training?

the cognition deconstruction phase

The cognitive distortion of making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence is:

arbitrary inferences.

The cognitive distortion that consists of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event is:

selective abstraction.

The process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings is known as:

overgeneralization.

The tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection, is known as:

personalization.

The cognitive distortion that involves portraying one's identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one's true identity is:

labeling and mislabeling.

To a large degree, cognitive therapy is:

a psychoeducational model.

The concept of automatic thoughts plays a central role in whose theory?

Beck

Of the following cognitive techniques, which one would Beck be least likely to employ?

confronting the musturbatory thinking of a client

According to Meichenbaum, the first step in the change process involves:

observing one's behavior and thinking patterns.

The constructivist perspective in cognitive therapy holds that:

d. there are multiple realities and a therapist's task is to help clients appreciate how they construct their realities and how they author their own stories.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Meichenbaum's constructivist approach to cognitive behavior therapy?

It is more structured and more directive than standard cognitive therapy.

Jim told Margie, a cognitive therapist who has adopted a constructivist perspective, that he is a prisoner of his dysfunctional past. Margie should do all of the following except:

encourage him to tell the rest of his story.

Cognitive behavioral therapists assist clients in using language that:

a. is not self-condemning.
b. depicts the client's thoughts in a rational and accurate manner.
c. replaces absolutes with preferences.
d. all of these

Which of the following statements is true with regard to the fit between the cognitive behavioral approaches and multicultural counseling?

There is an "almost perfect fit" between cognitive behavior therapy and multicultural counseling because these perspectives share common assumptions that make integration possible.

Roberto, who struggles with feeling inadequate as a provider and husband, has come to work with a cognitive behavioral therapist. In addition to feeling inadequate, he feels angry that he has been marginalized by the mainstream culture. As his therapist, you should do all of the following except:

impress Roberto with your use of jargon to reinforce that you are the expert.

A noteworthy strength of the cognitive behavioral approaches is:

they have strong empirical support.

To what does the term "cognitive triad" refer?

It is a pattern that triggers depression.

Sandra is a reality therapist who is meeting her client Paul, who struggles with career indecision, for the first time. How might she begin her work with Paul?

by asking Paul what he wants from therapy

Reality therapy is best categorized as:

a form of cognitive behavior therapy.

Reality therapy has gained popularity with:

a. school counselors and administrators.
b. school teachers, both elementary and secondary.
c. rehabilitation workers.
d. all of the above

Reality therapy is best described as:

a short-term therapy that stresses doing.

The client's quality world consists of all of the following except:

insight.

WDEP stands for:

wants, doing, self-evaluation, planning.

Which of the following is not a component of total behavior?

wanting

A reality therapist would most likely respond to a client's complaint of melancholy, sad mood by saying:

"Sounds like you're depressing."

The function of the reality therapist is:

to assist clients in dealing with the present.

Wubboding believes all of the following encourage the client's involvement in therapy except for:

allowing the client to focus on symptoms.

In reality therapy, the counseling environment is:

characterized by a therapeutic climate that establishes the foundation for implementing procedures

Which method(s) is (are) often used in reality therapy?

a. behavior-oriented methods
b. the use of questioning
c. exploring a client's quality world
d. designing an action plan
e. all of these

What is Robert Wubbolding likely to say about people's problems?

"People don't have problems, they have solutions that have not worked."

Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ?

reliving an early childhood event

Which of the following is not a function of the reality therapist?

focusing on areas in the client's life that need improvement so that he or she can achieve a
"success identity"

All of the following are true about planning and commitment in reality therapy, except:

A great deal of time is spent on this step of reality therapy.

Reality therapy is based on which of the following orientations to understanding human behavior?

existential-phenomenological

What do reality therapists believe about the use of questions?

Relevant questions help clients gain insights and arrive at plans and solutions.

Reality therapists are likely to deal with all of the following except for:

asking clients to recall, report, and share dreams.

A reality therapist will primarily focus on:

present behavior.

When reality therapists explore a client's past, they tend to focus on:

past successes.

In reality therapy, the purpose of developing an action plan is:

to arrange for successful experience.

In reality therapy, when a client fails to carry out their plans, the therapist will:

challenge the client to accept the reasonable consequence of his or her behavior.

Which of the following is (are) a contribution of reality therapy?

It provides a structure for both clients and therapist to evaluate the degree and the nature of changes

Reality therapy rests on the central idea that:

we choose our behavior and are responsible for what we do, think, and feel.

Glasser would agree with all of the following conclusions except:

We are most likely to change if we are threatened by punishment.

The core of reality therapy consists of:

teaching clients to take effective control of their own lives.

A limitation of this approach as it applies to multicultural counseling is:

oppressed clients may have little choice over their circumstances.

All of the following are procedures that are commonly used in reality therapy except:

exploring early recollections.

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