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the united states

is the most mulitcultural of all countries

As part of the human culture

religion is an example of nonmaterial culture

culture a term for belief

values, behavior and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life.

values

A standard by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful

examples of material culture

cars, computers, and CDs

whereas the term culture refers to a shared way of life

a nation is a political entinty

sociologists define a symbol as

anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture

cultural transmission

refers to the process of passing cultural patterson from one generation to another

key values of U.S. culture

are sometimes in conflict with one another

low-income countries

have cultures that value economic survival

nonmaterial culture

the intangible world of ideas created by members of a society

prescriptive norms

are rules that state what we should do

proscriptive norms

are rules that state what we should not do

William Graham Sumner

is the early U.S. sociologist who decribed the difference between folkways and mores ways

mores

distinguish between right and wrong

folkways

distinguish between right and rude

Ethnocentrism

refers to judging anothe culture using the standards of your own culture

Elements of social control

include shame, guilt and sanctions, including rewards and punishment

Technology

is the term for the application of cultural knowledge to the task of living in an enviroment

culture act as a constraint

limiting human freedom because much culture is habit and is repeated again and again

the distinction between high culture and popular culture

is based mostly on the social standing of the people who display the cultural patter

the social conflict approach

is linked to the philosophical doctrine of materialism

popular culture

cultural patterson that are widespread among a society's population

A subculture

refers to cultural patterns that set apart a segment of society's population

multiculturalism

is defined as an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United states and promoting equality of all cultural traditions

Eurocentric claim

the claim that U.S. culture is dominated by European and especially English ways of life

Counterculture

refers to cultural patterns that oppose those that are widely held

Cultural intergration

refers to the fact that change in one cultural pattern is usually linked to changes in others

the term "cultural lag"

refers to fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others

conforming to folkways

an act of kidness, such as opening the door for an elderly man

cultural change

is a set in motion in three general ways: invention, discovery, and diffusion

diffusion

the soread of cultural traits from one society to another

cultural relativism

the practice of understanding another culture on its own terms and using its own standards

the structural-functional approach states

thst the stability of U.S. society rest on core values shared by most people

artifacts

tangible or physical human creations

structural-functional approach explains

how schooling helps prepare young people for the work they will do as adults

social-conflict approach

the theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality

Culture is a sorce of human freedom because as social creatures

humans make and remake themselves

the term society refers

to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture

Anomie was used by Durkheim

to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to indiviuals

According to Lenski, the term sociocultural evolution refers

to changes that occur as a society acquires new technology

horticultural and pastoral

the first type of society to generate a material surplus

As Msrx, used the term alienation

means the experience of isolation and misery resulted from powerlessness

industrial

has the greatest productive specialization

Agrarian

engages in large scale farming based on the use of plowa drawn by animals or more powerful energy sources

the development of agrarian technology

rested on the use of the plow, animal power and the development of metals

The Roman Empire

a its peak power was an agrarian type of society

in terms of social inequality

agrarian societies generally have much more inequality than less productive societal types

compared to an industrial society

a postindustrial society is based on an information based economy

Karl Marx believed that the industrial-capitalist system was very productive

concentrating wealth in the hands of a few and giving rise to two great classes: capitalists and proletarians

The driving force for society, according to Marx

is social conflict between classes

Karl Marx

argued that the dominant social institution is the economy

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