Chapter 20: The Global Demand for Resources

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Subsistence

the minimum amount to sustain

Annual Population Growth Rate

1.4% a year

Population by 2020

8 billion

Population by 2050

12 billion

What happened in 1973?

oil-producing countries of the middle east placed an embargo on import/export of oil to the West.

Natural gas is __% of energy consumption in the US

~25%

Oil is the _____ category of nonrenewable energy

biggest

Coal is the _____ largest nonrenewable resource

3rd

Nuclear energy is a _____ and ____ energy source? (2 words) -

new and 4th largest

Nonrenewable resources

resources that cannot be replaced

Hydroelectric accounts for ____ of all renewable energy consumed in the US.

half of all renewable energy

Solar power is the _____ largest source of renewable energy.

3rd

_____ is the largest producer of wind generated energy.

California!

Where are many of the most dangerous nuclear reactors located?

Ukraine

For what purpose is most of the water in the US used for?

agriculture

What major problem does Southern California have in connection to water?

water shortage

What happens to agriculture when population increases?

reduces the amount of land available.

Embargo

a government order imposing a trade barrier

What 3 effects did lower oil prices cause?

recession, OPEC lost some of it's control and search for alternative fuels began to wane.

Gasohol

a mixture of gasoline and ethanol

Glut

the quality of being so overabundant that prices fall

Why were factories often located near rivers?

So they could you hydroelectric power.

Pollution

contamination of air, water or soil by discharge of poisonous or noxious substances.

Acid Rain

water + sulfur dioxide that make a mild sulfuric acid.

What 2 ways can you control pollution?

Legeslated standards, have companies pay taxes on the amount of pollutants they release, pollution permits.

** Which of the 2 ways do you think whould work best and why?

I think that a combination of them would be best have standereds and tax the companies who are exempt.

Pollution Permit

federal authorization allowing a public utility to release pollutions into the air; a form of pollution control

Cost-Benefit Analysis

comparing the cost of an action to the benefits.

Modified Free Enterprise Economy

capitalism with some government involvement; same as modified private enterprise economy

Five steps of a Framework of Decision Making

1. State problem/issue 2. Determine goals around issue 3. Consider principle alternative means of achieving goals. 4.

Who was Thomas Malthus?

English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies

What was the name of his book?

Essay on Principles of Population

* What did he believe about population?

Population whould grow faster than it's ability to feed itself.

What 4 factors, according to Malthus whould slow the population growth?

The population whould only be able to produce enough to support itself.

Was he right or wrong? Why?

In some parts of the world, but the world isn't as black and white as that.

What are fossil fuels?

coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.

What is the disadvantage in using them in energy?

They take thousands of years to form.

What are the main renewable energy sources used today?

Hydroelectric and Biomass

In what way is land a nonrenewable resource?

Land can be used to build and develop on, if you want to reuse it you have to destroy whats there.

What is OPEC?

Organization of petroleum exporting countries- An internal economic organization whose member countries produce and export oil.

How does a tax on pollution encourage companies to stop polluting?

The more they pollute the more they have to pay.

How could an increase in the price of natural gas help conserve the limited supply?

If people have to pay more they will try and find ways to use less.

* What was the problem with Laissez Faire Capitalism?

Business had too much power, destroying the environment and society.

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