AP 102 Ch 23 - The Digestive System

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Which of following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system? *
A) Ingestion
B) Secretion
C) Mixing and propulsion
D) Absorption
E) None of the above

Mixing and propulsion

Which of following processes is the primary function of the mouth? *
A) Ingestion
B) Secretion
C) Mixing and propulsion
D) Absorption
E) None of the above

Ingestion

Which of following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?
A) Ingestion
B) Secretion
C) Mixing and propulsion
D) Absorption
E) None of the above

Absorption

Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to begin chemical digestion of food?
A) Teeth
B) Salivary glands
C) Liver
D) Gallbladder
E) Pharynx

Salivary glands

Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
A) Teeth
B) Salivary glands
C) Liver
D) Gallbladder
E) Pharynx

Liver

Which of the following accessory organs stores bile?
A) Teeth
B) Salivary glands
C) Liver
D) Gallbladder
E) Pharynx

Gallbladder

The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called
A) Motility
B) Propulsion
C) Digestion
D) Absorption
E) Defecation

Motility

This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels.
A) Mucosa
B) Lamina propria
C) MALT
D) Musclaris
E) Epithelium

Lamina propria

This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis.
A) Submucosa
B) Lamina propria
C) Epithelium
D) Serosa
E) None of the above

Submucosa

This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid.
A) Serosa
B) Submucosa
C) Muscularis
D) Mucosa
E) MALT

Serosa

These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response.
A) Mucosa
B) Lamina propria
C) Muscularis
D) Submucosa
E) Serosa

Lamina propria

This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis. *
A) ENS
B) Myenteric plexus
C) Submucosal plexus
D) Digestive plexus
E) Absorption plexus

Myenteric plexus

This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine. *
A) Greater omentum
B) Falciform ligament
C) Lesser omentum
D) Mesentery
E) Mesocolon

Greater omentum

This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm.
A) Greater omentum
B) Falciform ligament
C) Lesser omentum
D) Mesentery
E) Mesocolon

Falciform ligament

This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the large intestine. *
A) Greater omentum
B) Falciform ligament
C) Lesser omentum
D) Mesentery
E) Mesocolon

Mesocolon

The hard palate
A) is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth
B) Is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones
C) Is covered by a mucous membrane
D) is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, formed by the maxillae and palatine bones
E) All of the above

All of the above

Lateral to the base of the uvula in the mouth, this muscular fold runs posteriorly down the lateral sides of the soft palate to the pharynx.
A) Uvula
B) Palatoglossal arch
C) Palatopharyngeal arch
D) Parotid glands
E) Sublingual glands

Palatopharyngeal arch

In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with *
A) Gingivae
B) Cementum
C) Periodontal ligament
D) Pulp
E) Root

Periodontal ligament

Deciduous molars are replaced by
A) bicuspids.
B) molars.
C) incisors.
D) Canines.
E) wisdom teeth.

bicuspids

Which of the following contains skeletal muscle?
A) Muscularis
B) Mucosa
C) Serosa
D) Submucosa

Muscularis

How many stages of deglutition are there?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5
E) 8

3

This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage. *
A) Cardia
B) Fundus
C) Pylorus
D) Rugae
E) Sphincter

Rugae

Which of the following secrete hydrochloric acid? *
A) Mucous cells
B) Parietal cells
C) Chief cells
D) Serosa cells
E) Chyme cells

Parietal cells

This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of hydrochloric acid.*
A) Neck cell
B) Chief cell
C) G cell
D) Chyme cell
E) Mucous cell

G cell

How long can food stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?
A) 10 minutes
B) 20 minutes
C) 30 minutes
D) 45 minutes
E) 1 hour

1 hour

This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions. *
A) Pancreatic duct
B) Hepatopancreatic duct
C) Cystic duct
D) Bile duct
E) Hepatic duct

Pancreatic duct

Which of the following pancreatic enzymes digests lipids? *
A) Trypsin
B) Elastase
C) Lipase
D) Pepsin
E) All of the above

Lipase

This is the heaviest gland of the body. *
A) Heart
B) Liver
C) Pancreas
D) Large intestine
E) Thyroid

Liver

This is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical vein in a fetus.
A) Coronary ligament
B) Falciform ligament
C) Round ligament
D) Kupffer ligament
E) Bile ductules

Round ligament

This is the principle bile pigment.
A) Stercobilin
B) Bilirubin
C) Biliverdin
D) Both stercobilin and bilirubin
E) All of the above

Bilirubin

Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver? *
A) Metabolism of carbohydrates
B) Protein metabolism
C) Storage of bilirubin
D) Synthesis of bile salts
E) Storage of vitamins

Storage of bilirubin

Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?
A) Goblet cells
B) Absorptive cells
C) Mucosa cells
D) Paneth cells
E) S cells

Paneth cells

Duodenal glands
A) Secrete an acidic mucous
B) Secrete an alkaline juice
C) Secrete an alkaline mucous
D) Secrete an acidic juice

Secrete an alkaline mucous

Which of the following enzymes digests proteins? *
A) Lipase
B) Amylase
C) Trypsin
D) Phosphatase
E) Ligase

Trypsin

Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts on glycogen and starches?*
A) Chymotrypsin
B) Amylase
C) Trypsin
D) Phosphatase
E) Nucleosidase

Amylase

Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts on peptide bonds? *
A) Chymotrypsin
B) Amylase
C) Pepsin
D) Phosphatase
E) Nucleosidase

Chymotrypsin

This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine.
A) Pepsin
B) Secretin
C) Gastrin
D) Cholecystokinin
E) Amylase

Secretin

This hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat and amino acids in the small intestine.
A) Pepsin
B) Secretin
C) Gastrin
D) Cholecystokinin
E) Amylase

Cholecystokinin

This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins. *
A) Bicarbonate ion
B) mucus
C) Bile
D) Hydrochloric acid
E) Water

Hydrochloric acid

This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon. *
A) Ileocecal sphincter
B) Pyloric sphincter
C) Appendix
D) Sigmoid colon
E) Anal canal

Ileocecal sphincter

Which of the following is not a function of the large intestine?
A) Mechanical digestion
B) Chemical digestion
C) Absorption
D) Feces formation
E) Regulation of blood glucose

Regulation of blood glucose

Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called:
A) Metabolism
B) Anabolism
C) Catabolism
D) Metatheses
E) Oxidation reactions

Catabolism

Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as *
A) Metabolism
B) Anabolism
C) Catabolism
D) Metatheses
E) None of the above

Anabolism

When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?
A) Adenosine diphosphate
B) GTP
C) Adenosine monophosphate
D) Metabolic water
E) Glucose

Adenosine diphosphate

Glycolysis, formation of acetyl co-A, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in: *
A) Lipogensis
B) Gluconeogenesis
C) Glucose catabolism
D) Formation of Glycogen
E) Formation of vitamin C

Glucose catabolism

These transport dietary lipids.
A) Apoproteins
B) Low density lipoproteins
C) Chylomicrons
D) Very low density lipoproteins
E) High density lipoproteins

Chylomicrons

Where does glycolysis take place?
A) Cytosol
B) Plasma membrane
C) Nucleus
D) Mitochondria
E) Golgi Apparatus

Cytosol

Where does the Kreb's cycle take place?
A) Cytosol
B) Plasma membrane
C) Nucleus
D) Mitochondria
E) Golgi Apparatus

Mitochondria

Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to
A) Pyruvic acid
B) Glycogen
C) Amino acids
D) Insulin
E) Glucase

Glycogen

Ketone bodies
A) Can enter the Krebs cycle
B) Are used for ATP production
C) Can be used to make lipids
D) Can enter Krebs or be used for ATP production
E) Convert into aldehydes in the liver

Can enter Krebs or be used for ATP production

Which of the following is not a major nutrient the body needs?
A) Carbohydrates
B) Phosphates
C) Proteins
D) Minerals
E) Vitamins

Phosphates

Provitamins are
A) Raw materials of vitamins
B) Broken down glucose molecules
C) Derivatives of minerals
D) Found only in the blood
E) Not stored in the body

Raw materials of vitamins

Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
A) Vitamin B
B) Vitamin E
C) Vitamin C
D) Vitamin O
E) None of the above

Vitamin E

Antioxidant vitamins
A) Are found in plasma membranes
B) Are vitamin derivatives
C) Can inactivate oxygen free radicals
D) Are all excreted in feces
E) Are all stored in adipose cells

Can inactivate oxygen free radicals

Describe the structures and functions of the enteric nervous system.

The ENS consists of the submucosal plexus in the submucosa and the myenteric plexus in the smooth muscle areas of the muscularis. Both contain sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons. The sensory neurons function as chemoreceptors or stretch receptors. The interneurons process incoming sensory information and activate or inhibit outgoing enteric neurons. Motor neurons of the myenteric plexus control GI tract motility. Motor neurons of the submucosal plexus control secretions of the GI tract organs.

Describe the role of the liver in protein metabolism.

Hepatocytes deaminate (remove the amino groups) amino acids so the amino acids can be used for ATP production or be converted to carbohydrates or fats. The amine group is converted to toxic ammonia. Hepatocytes convert the toxic ammonia to less toxic urea for excretion in urine. The liver also synthesizes many proteins, including most plasma proteins.

Identify the protein hydrolyzing enzymes in the digestive tract, and name their sources. Why are these enzymes released in an inactive form?

Pepsin from the stomach, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, and elastase from the pancreas, and aminopeptidase and dipeptidase from the small intestine are the proteases in the GI tract. The enzymes are not activated until they are in the lumen of the stomach or small intestine because they would otherwise digest the proteins in the cells that produce them.

Describe the structural characteristics of the small intestine that enhance its function as the major absorber of nutrients.

All structures increase surface area to increase the rate of reabsorption: great length (10' in living humans), microvilli on plasma membrane of each epithelial cell, villi (fingerlike projections of mucosa), and circular folds (permanent ridges in the mucosa).

Identify the different types of lipoproteins and describe the function of each.

Chylomicrons transport dietary lipids in the lymph and blood. Very low density lipoproteins transport endogenous triglycerides from hepatocytes to adipocytes for storage. Low density lipoproteins transport cholesterol through the body for use in repair of membranes and synthesis of steroid hormones and bile salts. High density lipoproteins transport excess cholesterol to the liver for elimination.

Which vitamins are considered "antioxidant vitamins?" Why is this role so important?

Vitamins C, E, and beta carotene (a provitamin) are antioxidants that inactivate oxygen free radicals. Free radicals damage cell membranes, DNA, and other cell structures. They also contribute to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Antioxidant vitamins may also decrease cancer risk, delay aging, and decrease the risk of cataract formation.

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