Pathophysiology Chapter 14 Altered Perfusion Review

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Braun and Anderson - Pathophysiology: A clinical approach 2nd edition

The lining of the heart that forms a first line of defense against infection and inflammation is called the:
a. Exocardium
b. Myocardium
c. Endocardium
d. Pericardium

D. Pericardium.

A complete cardiac cycle includes:
a. One contraction and one relaxation phase
b. Two contractions and one relaxation phase
c. One contraction and two relaxation phases
d. Two contractions and two relaxation phases

A. One contraction and one relaxation phase.

The _______ of the heart contracts and relaxes.
a. Myocardium
b. Pericardium
c. Endocardium
d. Osteocardium

A. Myocardium.

Jennifer tells you that she had to have an ECG yesterday. She asks what this test measures. You tell her that it measures:
a. The myocardium thickness.
b. The resting phase of the myocardium.
c. The blood level in the heart.
d. The electrical activity of the heart.

D. The electrical activity of the heart.

Match the following ECG characteristics to the source:
_____ P wave
_____ PQ interval
_____ QRS
_____ T
_____ U

a. Depolarization of the AV node and bundle fibers.
b. Depolarization of the ventricles.
c. Repolarization of Purkinje fibers.
d. Depolarization of the atria via the SA node.
e. Repolarization of the ventricles.

D. Depolarization of the atria via the SA node.
A. Depolarization of the AV node and bundle fibers.
B. Depolarization of the ventricles.
E. Repolarization of the ventricles
C. Repolarization of Purkinje fibers.

The following is considered the pacemaker of the heart:
a. AV node
b. BA node
c. SA node
d. Purkinje fibers

C. SA node

Raymond recently had a myocardial infarction and tells you that his cardiologist told him that his cardiac output is decreased. Raymond asks you what his cardiac output is. You tell him that it measures the:
a. Heart's efficiency to pump optimal amounts of blood.
b. Number of heartbeats a minute.
c. Amount of blood that leaves the heart with each beat.
d. The mean arterial pressure.

A. Heart's efficiency to pump optimal amounts of blood.

The systolic blood pressure measures:
a. The difference between the diastolic and systolic pressure.
b. The amount of pressure that remains in the aorta during the resting phase of the cardiac cycle.
c. The amount of pressure exerted during contraction of the left ventricle.
d. The mean arterial pressure.

B. The amount of pressure that remains in the aorta during the resting phase of the cardiac cycle.

These are located throughout the heart and they sense pressure changes in the arteries:
a. Purkinje fibers
b. RA node
c. SA node
d. Baroreceptors

D. Baroreceptors.

The three major factors responsible for clot formation called Virchow triad include all of the following except:
a. Vessel wall damage
b. Excessive clotting
c. Alterations in blood flow
d. Hypocoagulation

D. Hypocoagulation.

Dale recently had a physical and was told by his physician's assistant that he had atherosclerosis. Dale is not sure what this means and asks you to explain it to him. You tell Dale that it is:
a. Irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the inner lining of arteries.
b. An autoimmune mechanism.
c. A place where the vessel branches.
d. An outpouching in the vessel wall.

A. Irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the inner lining of the arteries.

David has had a myocardial infarction and has large infarct in the right atrium. An infarct is a(n):
a. Area of necrosis due to an acute episode of insufficient blood supply.
b. Bifurcation of the artery.
c. Outpouching of the vessel wall.
d. Area of collateral circulation on the cardiac muscle.

A. Area of necrosis due to an acute episode of insufficient blood supply.

Blood movement across the chambers of the heart is referred to as:
a. Shunting
b. Regurgitation
c. Stenosis
d. Dysrhythmia

A. Shunting.

Elmer has a valve that is unable to close properly and allows reflux of blood. This is called:
a. Shunting
b. Regurgitation
c. Stenosis
d. Dysrhythmia

B. Regurgitation.

Carie has an allergy to penicillin. Her provider mistakenly prescribed this medication for her infection. Shortly after taking the medication, Carie experienced a massive immune hypersensitivity response and moved into a state of shock. This type of shock is called:
a. Hypovolemic shock
b. Septic shock
c. Neurogenic shock
d. Anaphylactic shock

D. Anaphylactic shock.

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