Chapter 14 The Digestive Sytem and Body Metabolism

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Anatoy of the digestive system

The digestive system is responsible for many body processes. Its functions begins when food is taken into the mouth, or ____________

Oral Cavity

The process called ____________ occurs as food is broken down both chemically and mechanically

Digestion

For the broken down foods to be made available to the body cells, they must be absorbe dthrough the digestive system walls into the ___________

Blood

Undigestible food remains are removed, or _____________ from the body in ____________

Excreted, Feces

The organs forming a continuous tube from the mouth to the anus are collectively called the ___________

GI Tract OR Alimentary Control

Organs located outside the digestive tract proper, which secrete their products into the digestive tract, are referred to as ____________ digestive system organs

Accessory

Intestinal glands

produce an enzyme poor juice containing mucus found in the submucosa of the small intestine

Salivary glands

secretion includes amylase which begins starch digestion in the mouth

Pancreas

Ducts a variety of enzymes in an alkaline fluid into the duodenum via the bile duct

Liver

Produce bile, which is transported to the duodenum via the bile duct

Gastric Glands

Produce hydrochloric acis and pepsinogen

Structure that suspends the small intestione from the posterior body wall

Messentary

Finger like extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area

Villi

Collections of lymphatic tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

Plicae Circulares

Two anatomical regions involved in the physical breakdown of food

Oral cavity and Stomach

Organ that mixes food in the mouth

Tongue

Common passage for food and air

Pharynx

Three extensions/ modifications of the peritoneum

Greater Omentum
Lesser Omentum
Messentary

Literally a food chute has no digestive or absorptive role

Esophagus

Folds of the stomach mucosa

Rugae

Sac like out pocketings of the large intestinal wall

Haustra

Projections of the plasma membrane of a cell that increase the cells surface area

Microvilli

Prevents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine

Ileocecal Valve

Organ responsible for most food and water absorption

Small Intestine

Organ primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation

Colon

Area between the teeth lips and cheeks

Vestibule

Blind sac hanging from the initial part of the colon

Appendix

Organ in which protein digestion begins

Stomach

Membrane attached to the lesser survature of the stomach

Lesser Omentum

Organ into which the stomach empties

Small Intestine

Sphincter controlling the movement of food from the stomach onto the dudenum

Plyoric Sphincter

Uvula hangs from its posterior edge

Soft Palate

Organ that recieves pancreatic juice and bile

Small Intestine

Serosa of the abdominal cavity wall

Parietal Peritoneum

Region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body

Anal Canal

Anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity supported by bone

Hard palate

Ingestion

Eating

Propulsion

Swallowing, segmentation and peristalis

Mechanical digestion

Chew and Churn

Chemical digestion

enzymatic breakdown

Absorption

Nutrient Transport

Defecation

Feces Elimination

Starch digestion begins in the mouth when ________ is ducted in by the salivary glands

Salivary Amylase

Gastrin, which prods the stomach glands to produce more enzymes and HCI represents a ___________

Hormonal stimulus

The fact that the mere thought of a relished food can make your mouth water is an example of _______________

Psychological stimulus

Many people chew gum to increase saliva formation when their mouth is dry. This type of stimulus is a ____________

Mechanical stimulus

Protein foods are largely acted on in the stomach by _____________

Pepsin

For the stomach protein digesting enzymes to become active ________ is needed

HCI

Since living cells of the stomach are largely protein, it is amazing that they are not digested by the activity of stomach enzymes. The most important means of stomach protection is the __________ it produces

Mucus

A milk protein digesting enzyme found in children but uncommon in adults is __________

Kennin

The third layer of smooth muscle found in the stomach wall allows mixing and mechanical breakdown by _____________

Churning

Important intestinal enzymes are the ___________

Brush Border Enzymes

The small intestine is protected from the corrosive action of hydrochloric acid in chyme by _______________, which is ducted in by the pancreas

Bicarbonate Rich Fluid

The pancreas produces protein digesting enzymes, amylase, and mucleases. It is the only important source of ____________

Lipase

A non enzyme substance that causes fat to be dispersed into the smaller globules is ________

Bile

Inflammation of the abdominal serosa

Peritonitis

Condition resulting from the reflux of acidic gastric juice into the esophagus

Heart burn

Usually indicates liver problems or blockage of the biliary ducts

Jaundice

An erosion of the stomach or duodenal mucosa

Ulcer

Passage o watery stools

Diarrhea

Causes severe epigastric pain associated with prolonged storage of bile in the gallbladder

Gall Stones

Inability to pass feces often a result of poor bowel habits

Constipation

These two hormones stimulate the pancreas to release its secretions

cholecystokinin and secretin

This hormone stimulates increased production of gastric juice

Gastrin

This hormone causes the gallbladder to release stored bile

cholcystokinin

This hormone causes the liver to increase its output of bile

Secretin

The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. The three common simple sugars in out diet are ________ ___________ ___________

Galactose
Glucose
Fructose

Disaccharides include _________ __________ _________

Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose

Protein foods muct be digested to ___________ before they can be absorbed

Amino acids

Fats are broken down to two types of buildong blocks, __________ and glycerol

fatty acids

Of the simple sugars ____________ is most important because it is the sugar referred to as blood sugar

Glucose

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