Final Exam Psychology

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A cross-sectional study is one in which

different age groups are tested at the same time

If children cannot grasp the concept of conservation, they are unable to

recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape.

The ability to overcome hardship during childhood again and again is referred to as

resilience.

Sammy is in third grade. When he won the spelling bee, he felt proud of his accomplishment. However, when he could not complete his arithmetic assignment on time, he felt incompetent. Which of Erikson's developmental stages does this reflect?

industry vs. inferiority

Larry and Carol are tested twice on moral reasoning. When Kohlberg's measures are used, Carol gets a lower score than Larry. When Gilligan's approach is used, both individuals score at the same level - Stage 6. Based on research reported in your text, what probably caused this discrepancy?

Kohlberg's approach is a justice perspective while Gilligan's is a care perspective

Erikson's theory is based on the assumption that

each person faces a set of predictable life-changing challenges at various stages of life.

At the preconventional level of moral development, individuals decide right and wrong based on

punishments or rewards.

Which psychologist articulated the steps of cognitive development from infancy to adulthood?

Piaget

Parents using the ________ parenting style give strict rules to their children with little discussion of the reasons for the rules

authoritarian

Which of the following most accurately describes Ainsworth's strange situation?

caregiver leaves infant with stranger and returns later

The work of Harry and Margaret Harlow established that

contact comfort is more important than feeding in the attachment process.

Infant Stefano cries virtually all the time and has difficulty with new situations. His temperament is best described as

difficult

Mazie's mom is loving and nurturing, sets clear boundaries, and engages in a lot of verbal give and take. In terms of parenting styles, she would be described as

authoritative.

According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, individuals who are willing to risk their lives and freedom for a belief operate on the ________ level of moral development.

postconventional

Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding principles that guide what people should do is part of ________ development.

moral

The ability to multiply two numbers together falls under ________ development.

cognitive

Little Alicia knows that fish swim in the water. When she sees her first alligator, she says to her father, "Look at the big fish!" Her father tells her that the creature is not a fish, but an alligator. After some deliberation, Little Alicia decides that some creatures that swim in the water are not fish. Alicia initially exhibited ________, and then she exhibited ________.

assimilation; accommodation

In Piaget's cognitive development theory, the ________ stage occurs during the period of infancy.

sensorimotor

The nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate refers to

experience.

"Out of sight, out of mind" can describe the behavior of a child who has not mastered the concept of

object permanence.

Learning to perform a task so well that it becomes automatic is referred to as

overlearning.

You just ran a marathon in very hot weather and perspired heavily. According to drive reduction theory, your body will have a(n) ________ to hydrate, which will produce a(n) ________ for water, which will lead to a ________ to get water

need; drive; motivation

From Maslow's perspective, motivation is primarily the result of

satisfying basic needs before moving to higher needs.

Ray played basketball all of his life because he loved the sport. He became so good that he was given the opportunity to play professionally and eventually he signed a very lucrative contract. After that contract ran out, the team offered him slightly more money, but he decided that it was not enough. Which of the following best explains Ray's behavior from a motivational perspective?

Extrinsic motivation replaced Ray's intrinsic motivation to play.

Setting goals, planning for the implementation of goals, and monitoring progress are all aspects of

self-regulation.

When you exercise, you begin breathing more rapidly to provide oxygen to your cells. This increase in breathing is an attempt to restore

homeostasis.

Paige is an expert at golf and is bored by the thought of the upcoming tournament. Mary is pretty good at golf, and is somewhat excited, but not overly anxious about the tournament. Sara has only recently learned to play, but has very high expectations and is really nervous about the tournament. Jenna is also a beginner but she does not expect to play well. According to optimum arousal theory, who will perform the best?

Mary

A need is to a physiological state as a drive is to a(n) ________ state.

psychological

Consider the following scenario from Maslow's perspective: William has volunteered to work in a war-torn country to try to improve the lives of the residents there. Assuming that the citizens have enough food and water, what would they be in need of next?

safety

"I am so tired of dieting. It seems like it controls my life. I wonder what my real weight would be if I just ate only when I'm hungry." This dieter is curious about her

set point

What effect, if any, does engaging in altruistic behavior have on one's well being?

increases happiness

According to Maslow, self-actualization is possibl

only after all other needs have been fulfilled.

According to self-determination theory, people are most fulfilled when they satisfy which of the following three fundamental needs?

competence, autonomy, and relatedness

Paris thinks her best friend, Nicole, may be suffering from an undiagnosed case of anorexia nervosa. She shares her concerns with Nicole, but Nicole insists that anorexia nervosa is "no big deal." What is the most serious consequence of anorexia nervosa?

It has the highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder.

A sprinter would best be served by eating ________ prior to a race.

chocolate

Our daily moods give us feedback on the effectiveness of our self-regulation. This means that

we will not always be happy with the feedback.

According to the Yerkes-Dodson Law, optimum performance is achieved when one is

moderately anxious.

Which of the following definitions best describes the meaning of the term "autonomy"?

being independent and self-reliant

Research on delayed gratification indicates that the best way to resist temptation is to

focus on other activities rather than the forbidden activity

What typically happens when your blood sugar level gets too low?

You feel hungry.

Paul pushes Susie off the swing. Paul's behavior is best categorized as ________ aggression.

overt

The direction of one's erotic interests refers to a person's

sexual orientation.

An expectation of how a woman or man should think, act, and feel is referred to as a

gender role.

Any man can be a great leader because men are strong, dominant, and rational. This statement reflects a gender

stereotype.

According to Darwin, ________ drives sexual selection.

competition

The vast majority of "tomboys" turn out to be

heterosexual

The evolutionary perspective predicts that, compared to men, women will be

more selective when choosing a mate.

The research data on gender differences in general intellectual ability suggests that

there are no systematic differences between males and females.

________ refers to the social and psychological aspects of being male or female.

Gender

In terms of exploring the connection between sex and gender, the biological approach focuses on

genes

In regards to parenting, the best predictor of good psychological adjustment in adolescence is having

a close relationship with parents.

According to the text, biological characteristics are referred to as one's

sex

Those who adhere to the ________ perspective examine gender development by looking at how experience influences the formation of a person's sense of gender.

social cognitive

Although born with female sex organs and characteristics, Kristie has always felt uncomfortable being a girl. Her interests and activities have always been considered masculine, and she is happiest when engaging in masculine behavior. Kristie might be diagnosed with

gender identity disorder.

Pat is very assertive, nurturing, independent, and caring. Pat is best described as

androgynous.

The ________ theory best supports the statement: "A women should stay home and care for the children and a man should go to work to provide for them."

social role

Behavior that is meant to harm the social standing of another person is called ________ aggression.

relational

A mental framework for understanding what is considered appropriate behavior for males and females is called a gender

schema.

Leslie has two mothers. We can expect that Leslie will

be relatively unaffected.

The term ________ refers to experiencing one's psychological gender as being different from one's physical sex.

transgender

Reggie joins the football team to please his father. According to Rogers, this is an example of

conditions of worth.

If all you know about a person is that she is freethinking, smart, and tolerant, what trait is she likely high on?

openness

Those who adhere to the ________ approach to personality would ask the question: "Can changing your feelings about yourself increase happiness?"

humanistic

Blake secretly cheated on his girlfriend and now he is constantly accusing her of harboring desires for other people. What defense mechanism is Blake using?

projection

Abraham graduated from college with honors and approaches most aspects of life with the expectation that he will be successful. He expects a great deal of himself and sets his goals high. After his interview for a job in the most prestigious company in his state, he was convinced that he would get the job. You could say that he

has high self-efficacy.

According to Alfred Adler, people are primarily motivated by

their desire to overcome perceived shortcomings.

________ focus on the role of the unconscious mind in personality.

Psychodynamic theorists

Walter Mischel's view of situationism infers that

personality varies considerably from one context to another.

Psychologists who study personality focus on the

enduring traits and qualities we demonstrate over time.

Those who adhere to the ________ approach to personality would ask the question: "Why is Sam excited about meeting new people in his book club but afraid to meet new people at a party?"

social cognitive

According to ________, the person, the person's behavior, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links.

reciprocal determinism

According to Jung, the deepest, impersonal layer of the conscious mind that is shared by all humans is called the

collective unconscious.

Maslow would argue that Gus went back to school at age forty because

he chose to fully develop his potential.

Which of the following concepts is associated with Albert Bandura?

observational learning

Which of the following accurately describes how factor analysis is used to identify personality traits?

Factor analysis identifies which traits go together in terms of how they are rated.

Sally was reared in a home where high moral principles dominated. She has attended Sunday school and church since early childhood. In high school, her boyfriend talked her into "sleeping" with him. According to Freud, which personality structure ruled Sally's behavior in the second part of this scenario?

id

Darin had an automobile accident in which his brother and another passenger were killed. Though Darin was not seriously hurt in the accident, he cannot remember any of the accident details. Darin is unconsciously engaging in which ego defense mechanism?

repression

Belinda is in counseling and feels that she is on the brink of bursting through her psychological cocoon and becoming a butterfly. Belinda's therapist agrees with Belinda and feels strongly that Belinda has the innate ability to cope with stress and to control her life. Belinda's therapist is most likely a

humanist.

When Peter is not biting his nails, he is chewing on a pencil. Freud would argue that Peter is fixated at the ________ stage.

oral

________ coined the term "personology".

Murray

A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called

the foot-in-the-door.

Mr. and Mrs. Lee warn their new babysitter, Alison, that their son, Dennis, is very aggressive and mischievous. As a result, Alison starts calling the child "Dennis the Menace" and she behaves in ways that elicit aggressive and mischievous behaviors from Dennis. This example best demonstrates the phenomenon called

the self-fulfilling prophecy.

You see a student stumble and drop her books in the hall. According to the fundamental attribution error, how would you explain this student's behavior?

She is a clumsy person.

According to the self-perception theory, if you are not sure how you feel about something, what should you do?

consider your behavior

Caroline has volunteered to work with the underprivileged children who are participants in her professor's literacy project. She is hoping that her professor will take this into consideration when calculating her grade. Caroline is expecting

reciprocity.

In a recent softball game, Cindy misplayed a ground ball for an error. Later in the same game, she made a great catch on a very difficult play. According to the self-serving bias, she would attribute her error to ________ and her good catch to ________.

a bad bounce; good fielding skills

The advertising committee for a politician is going door to door and asking people to put a big ugly election sign on their lawn. If people refuse, they ask them if they would consider putting a smaller sign on the lawn. The committee is using

the door-in-the-face strategy.

Michael is the new department head. He expects everyone to "get on board" with his restructuring of the department, and he publicly reprimands anyone who disagrees with his new policies. On the other hand, Michael praises department members for unanimity, cohesiveness, and harmony. Michael is creating an atmosphere most conducive to

groupthink.

Conformity is to obedience as

Asch is to Milgram.

Enrique earned a C on his science quiz, but says to his mom, "At least I didn't make an F like Scotty did." Enrique is making a(n) ________ social comparison

downward

Research findings indicate that frustration

can lead to aggression or passivity.

Dr. McCall found that class projects were of poorer quality when students worked in groups compared to when each student did an individual project. This difference can be explained by the phenomenon of

social loafing.

"Drinking may be harmful to my health, but I'll die having a good time." This statement illustrates an attempt to reduce

cognitive dissonance.

You have been asked to assist a defense attorney in planning a defendant's case. You insist that all of the defense character witnesses be above average in looks. What is the most likely reason for your request?

Those who are above average in looks are considered more likable.

Despite evidence to the contrary, Denise thinks she is smarter than most of the people in her class. Denise's unfounded attitude about herself is an example of a

positive illusion.

Chuck just met Elle, a new Harvard law school student. Although Elle is very intelligent, she looks more like a blonde beauty queen than a law school student. Chuck thinks that someone as beautiful as Elle is much less likely to do well in school. Chuck's views about beautiful blondes are an example of a(n)

stereotype.

If you were to donate one of your kidneys to whoever might need it, you would be demonstrating a(n) ________ view of human nature.

altruistic

Joyce has the potential to be an honor student. However, she frustrates her teachers because of her actions. Rather than work to succeed, she tends to "dummy down" to act more like the students that she hangs out with. She sometimes answers questions incorrectly just to be more like her friends. Which of the following perspectives would explain this?

normative social influence

In Solomon Asch's study on conformity, how often did the volunteer participants conform to the group's pressure?

about 35% of the time

Which of the following practices best reduces the effects of self-objectification?

requiring students to wear school uniforms

The ________ approach emphasizes the psychological characteristics of workers and managers, and stresses the significance of factors such as moral, attitudes, and values.

human relations

Marilyn needs a wheelchair to get around. If she is hired for a new job, the company must

make accommodations to allow her to do the job

A company owner wants to hire the most honest job applicants. She could best evaluate the honesty of job applicants by using a(n)

integrity test.

Bruce and Grant apply for work at the same company. Bruce is interviewed using a structured interview format while Grant is interviewed using an unstructured interview format. Both men are hired. Will the employer be able to predict their future job performance based on how they each did in their interview?

The employer will be better able to predict Bruce's future job performance.

The tendency of individuals to perform better simply because they are being singled out and made to feel important is called

the Hawthorne effect.

The process of generating a description of what a job involves, including the knowledge and skills that are necessary to carry out the functions of the job, is called a

job analysis.

Understanding and enhancing the safety and efficiency of the human-machine interaction is the central focus of

ergonomics.

Antony owns a company where the work is creative and employees are encouraged to suggest new solutions to old problems. Antony's company uses

theory Y management.

Maria runs her company on the philosophy that workers try to avoid doing their work so she must constantly try to "keep them in line." Maria's philosophy best matches with

theory X management

Who invented the assembly line?

Ransom E. Olds

Susan is having her performance at work evaluated. Susan is recognized for completing large volumes of work in a shorter period of time than other employees. She also has excellent time management skills and is good at prioritizing and delegating tasks. Her weaknesses are a lack of attention to details and a high rate of errors. The person rating her gives her very similar scores for production, efficiency, and accuracy. This rater's evaluation reflects which phenomenon?

halo effect

At the college where Dave works, potential employees must give a ten minute demonstration of their teaching style prior to being hired. This is an example of a(n)

work sample.

The term interviewer illusion refers to the tendency of interviewers to believe that

they can discern the truth about a job applicant.

The notion that the principles of science should be applied to work settings has been around for

almost 100 years.

Kenneth has been working for a company for nearly two years and is about to attend a workshop outlining a new software program that his company is about to adopt. What is Kenneth engaging in?

employee development

What is a key result of overlearning?

automaticity

The mastermind of scientific management was

Frederick Winslow Taylor

The psychological experience of the worker is emphasized in ________ psychology.

organizational

At the end of each month, Tonya is evaluated by several of her co-workers, her boss, and even herself. She is involved in a(n) _______ performance appraisal.

360-degree

The first step for a new employee is taking part in

orientation.

In 1973, Rosenhan performed a study in which eight healthy adults were committed to a psychiatric hospital. What did this study demonstrate?

Being labeled with a mental disorder changes the way mental health professionals deal with you

An optimistic attribution style has been related to ________ levels of depression and ________ risk of suicide

lower; decreased

Oscar feels that if he does not circle his car five times before he gets in it, he will have an accident. The feeling that he is going to have an accident represents a(n)

obsession.

Which of the following is NOT important to those who deal with psychological disorders using the psychological approach?

genetics

It has been over two years since the death of her husband, and although Jenelle tries to go out with her friends for dinners and sometimes a concert, she still cannot seem to find much pleasure in life. Jenelle is most likely suffering from

dysthymic disorder.

Which of the following disorders is associated with a particular culture?

anorexia nervosa

Carla is afraid to use any toilet other than the one in her home. She will go to any length to avoid using a public restroom or the washrooms at her friends' houses. Carla is most likely suffering from

phobic disorder.

Evan decided to take an F in English class rather than have to get up in front of the class to make an oral presentation. Evan probably suffers from

a social phobia.

An implication of the medical model of psychological disorders is that

the individual should not be blamed for the disorder.

Penny is a single mom who is constantly struggling to make ends meet. As a result, she is depressed a great deal of the time. Her depression most likely has a ________ basis.

socio-cultural

Joshua has received low grades in math throughout his school years. In the lower grades, he would study hard, but the results were always the same. Eventually, he stopped trying to do better in math because nothing seemed to work. Joshua has developed

learned helplessness.

For a person to have experienced a major depressive episode, he/she must have had at least five of the nine symptoms for at least

two weeks.

Of the following factors, ________ is related to the highest rates of mental disorders.

low income

When Sandra was 18 years old, she was in a serious car accident. Although she made a full recovery from her injuries, she experienced extreme anxiety afterward. Sandra is now very anxious when driving, will not drive near the site of the accident, has nightmares about the accident, and flinches when she goes through intersections. Sandra has symptoms suggestive of

post-traumatic stress disorder.

Brad seems to be in a continuous state of anxiety though he is unable to identify the source of his feelings. The most likely diagnosis for Brad is ________ disorder.

generalized anxiety

Steve is a scuba diver who is concerned about sharks every time he is diving near a boat wreck. Steve is exhibiting

a normal reaction.

Mrs. Johnson recently returned home after being gone for nearly five months. She has no memory associated with those five months. She most likely experienced a(n)

dissociative fugue.

What is the name of the manual that psychologists use to classify mental disorders?

DSM-IV-TR

Which if the following is NOT considered one of the criteria for defining abnormal behavior?

unique behavior

Your roommate is acting very strangely. Although she has not slept much in the past few days, she says she is on top of the world. She has cleaned and re-cleaned her closets several times. She has invested in a questionable financial venture. This period of non-stop activity has lasted for well over a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue she exhibited in the previous semester. The DSM-IV diagnosis would most likely be

bipolar disorder.

A therapist challenges her client during a therapy session by saying, "So what if your fiancée left you and married your roommate instead? Why does that mean that you are not a good person?" The therapist is working from which of the following perspective?

rational-emotive

Pete's therapist says, "Don't say you will never fall in love again, say it will be difficult to learn to trust someone again." The therapist is utilizing ________ in his efforts to help Pete.

cognitive restructuring

"First, I would like you to get in a comfortable position and begin the breathing techniques which we have been practicing. When you sense that you have arrived at complete relaxation, we will proceed." This therapist is initiating

systematic desensitization.

Dr. Houltin is a therapist who believes that it is important for clients to share information and provide feedback to each other. Dr. Houltin is practicing ________ therapy.

group

Freud argued that the true meaning of dream symbols was

dependent on the individual dreamer.

After several months in psychoanalysis, Ryan had an emotional outburst during which he cried and sobbed as he talked about a childhood experience. Freud termed this emotional release

catharsis

Mike takes lithium to regulate his mood. This drug is used to treat

bipolar disorder

The therapy that is based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to self-defeating and irrational beliefs is

cognitive therapy.

Ann has a spider phobia. During her next therapy session, her therapist plans to expose Ann to live spiders for the whole 50-minute session. Her therapist is going to use the technique called

flooding.

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