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gamete

a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote

binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

gene

a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary trait

chromatid

one of the two strands of a chromosome that becomes visible furing meiosis or mitosis

chromosome

in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and proteins in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

centomere

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

diploid

a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes

haploid

describes a cell, nucleus or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes

zygote

the cell that results from the fusion of gametes, a fertilized egg

sex chromosome

one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

karyotype

an array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size

cell cycle

the life cycle of cells in eukaryotes, it consists of a a cell-growth period in which DNA is synthesized and cell-division period in which mitosis takes place

interphase

a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA and synthesizes proteins

mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

cytokinesis

the division of the cytoplama of a cell, cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis

cancer

a tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive

spindle

a network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromatids to the poles

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