Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

world war 1

Causes of World War I

nationalism, imperialism, militarism, creation of alliances (Central and Allied Powers); immediate cause: assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (heir to Austrian throne) by a Serb on June 28, 1914

Triple Alliance, Triple Entente

the triple alliance was made up of germany, italy, and austria hungary and the triple entente was made up of russia france and great britain. Italy eventually switched sides to the tiple entante, which made up the majority of the world power

Countries of world war 1

France, Russia, Britain
Austria, Germany, Ottoman Empire

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.

Central Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire

Allies

Great Britain, France, Russia

Eastern Front

In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.

Schlieffen Plan

Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.

Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?

1)stripped Germany of all military 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Belgium in ww1

was used as a back door for germany after they conquered it but belgium had britan allies so english got into the war

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

Blank check

Germany swears to support Austria-Hungary in any actions it takes against Serbia

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.

Emperor Franz Joseph

Last emperor in Austria-Hungary and he ruled from 1848-1916. He adopted liberal policies in Hungary and became king in 1867

WW1 Strategies

Tanks, poison gas, land mines to blow up trenches, advanced artillery, trench warfare

weapon that caused stalemate

machine gun

Gallipoli

A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire

Why did the U.S. enter World War I?

-Germany was attacking American ships
-Violating international law (germany)
- The Zimmerman note

militarism,

policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war

nationalism

pride in one's country

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.

armistice

a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

reparations

payment for damages after a war

George Clemenceau

French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919. Pushed for heavy reparations from Germans. Wanted to make Germans suffer and help break Germany up.

Vittorio Orlando

He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Lloyd George

British prime minister, although he was re-elected for his popular campaign of making Germany pay for the war, he ended up fighting the most for German interests in the Versailles Treaty because he feared communism

Marne

Germans had taken over the River and pushed back Britain and France in a series of attacks; Battle near paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory, the first battle of WWI happened where the French and British stopped the Germans and the Schlieffen Plan.

Verdun

A battle in WWI. Is considered some of the bloodiest fighting in WWI and the German offense was stopped; offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war, however France was in a very good defensive position and French held it for 10 months. Nearly a million killed. French drew reserve troops from the Somme to help defend. No territory was gained; Battle in WWI that ended in massive casualties and had little direct result

Somme

A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man's land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.

Tannenburg

In 1914 during World War I a German army under the command of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg won an important victory over two Russian armies in the Second Battle of Tannenberg who had invaded East Prussia.

armenian genocide

the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries

propaganda

information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

ultimatum

(n.) a final proposal or statement of conditions

woodrow wilson

After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.

annie oakley

United States sharpshooter who was featured in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1860-1926)

zimmerman note

A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.

gallipoli campaign

Allied invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in the Straits, unprofitable fighting for months, huge casualties but the allies had to withdraw, so a large victory to Turkish forces

paris peace conference

The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.

wilson's peace plan

this was called the fourteen points. this was meant to pervent international problems from causing another war. the first point in this was to end secret agreements. next the on wilson thought was most important was the league of nations which was to protect any nation large or small for independence.

brusilov offensive

Offensive from the Russians; failure because of poor army performance and weak industrialization

unrestricted submarine

type of warfare used by Germany in WWI where they attacked any ship with no warning

sinking of lusitania

When German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 139 Americans

us enter WWI

Sinking of the Louistania, Zimmerman note, unrestricted submarine warfare, selling weapons, loaning money to allies. Wanted to make the world safe for democracy

nivelle offensive

Frenchmen Nivelle put together a campaign to drive Germany out, but half of french army resisted (widespread mutiny) and so did factory workers (49 mutineers shot)

caporetto

Italy vs. Austria-Hungary; largest Italian defeat

ypres

battle in World War I (1914)
ex. heavy but indecisive fighting as the Allies and the Germans both tried to break through the lines of the others

Douglas Haig

Controversial British commander on the Western Front and the driving force behind some disasters like Somme and Paschendaele

joffre

French field marshal who commanded the Allied armies in France during World War II (1852-1931)

gallieni

French military commander in French Colonies and WWI, credited with being the intelligence that won the First Battle of the Marne in 1914.

nivelle

French Military Leader
Lead the Battle of Verdun

petain

leader of the new French government which sued for armistice from Germany

foch

French leader who united all Allied command; his axiom="To make war is to attack"

moltke

German chief of staff whose hesitant strategy stalled the advance of the German army through France

falkenhayn

German General, replaced Moltke after he failed at the Marne. Very cruel General, in favor of poison gas.

ludendorff

general who assisted Hindenburg, he helped to defeat the Russians at Tannenburg and the Masurian Lake

hindenburg

President of Germany who died and was replaced by Hitler

treaty of brest litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.

big bertha

Famous German long-range guns

trench warfare

Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.

mustafa kemal

Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)

enver pasha

leader who took an army of Turks to fight the Russians but the army was destroyed by the Russian winters and under supplied

tsar nicholas

the Romanov ruler of Russia who was forced to abdicate his throne and flee with his family

baron manfred

a german soldier "Red Baron".

spanish flu

Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people

lost generation

generation lost because of the casualties caused by the war, disease and starvation

provisions of treaty of versailles

1)stripped Germany of all military 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

independent countries after WWI

-Ethiopia/Liberia stayed independent

polish corridor

the strip of territory cut through Germany to allow Poland access to seaport, from Versailles, led to Baltic Sea

technology of WWI

germany used poison gas; other things include machine guns, long range artillery, airplanes, tanks, the draft, zepplin

edmund grey

Admininistered britains foreign policy, felt britains relationship to france was very important.

PLan xvii

put bulk of army on German border and fight a lot. French plan of attack

Otto van bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy

militarism

policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war

alliance system

defense agreement among nations

nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set