Introduction to Romanesque Architecture (5.01)

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Saint-Sernin at Toulouse, France nave (ca. late 11C)

-barrel-vaulted interior w/ demarcated ribs
-very dark, lacks a clerestory
-double side aisles
-The earliest, truly Romanesque structures are found on the pilgrimage routes in France. This is one such
-features an elongated nave, transept, apse, ambulatory and radiating chapels which give the church the shape of a Latin cross
-The interior view shows a rhythmic, geometric organization of space with the repeating units of barrel vaults above and compound piers below (in architecture, each of these "units" is known as a bay.)
-This "segmented space" is strikingly different from the timber-roofed, flat walled, uninterrupted space of Early Christian basilicas (cf. Sant'Apollinare Nuovo), and is a certain mark of a Romanesque church.

Saint-Sernin at Toulouse, France exterior (ca. late 11C)

-pilgrimage church containing ambulatory around apse w/ radiating chapels for relics
-corresponding buttresses
-buttress strips mark internal bay structure
-square schematism

Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, Italy (ca. late 11C) nave

-nave-broader than its northern counterparts
-Italian architects never strayed too far from the Early Christian basilican design -nave is broader than its northern counterparts. Both are related to the fact that Italian architects never strayed too far from the Early Christian basilican design.

Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, Italy (ca. late 11C) exterior

-shows the continued innovation in vaulting.
-First, we see that the main vaults are higher (in fact almost domelike) than the transverse arches, further accentuating the interior spatial rhythm.
-Secondly (and more importantly), we see that the compound piers also continue into the vaults which create supporting arches, or ribs, running along the groin. This support system is known as rib vaulting and is characteristic of Late Romanesque and Gothic (the next period) architecture.
-does not have the soaring heights as do the other northern churches that we have studied.
-higher vaults than transverse arches (almost dome-like)
-rib-vaulting support system [characteristic of Late Romanesque and Gothic (the next period) architecture]

radiating chapels

a series of small chapels for the display of relics, which were arranged around an ambulatory

tribunes

an upper story over the aisle which opens onto the nave or choir. It corresponds in length and width to the dimensions of the aisle below it

barrel vaulting

the simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise

groin vaulting

a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel (tunnel) vaults. Sometimes the arches of these vaults may be pointed instead of round. (ex. Speyer Cathedral)

compound pier

a type of pier that is composed not of a single member but has shafts, half-columns, or pilaster strips attached to it

Latin cross

a cross with three short arms and one long arm

bay

a unit of interior space in a building, marked off by architectural divisions

nave elevation

the division of horizontal space in the nave wall. In Saint-Sernin, we have two stories: the arcade (lower) and the tribune (upper). Yet, with Cluny III we have an elevation defined by an arcade, a tribune and a clerestory.

transverse arch

the projecting bands which mark the transverse arches of a rib vault

rib vault

a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs

square schematism

*a church plan in which the crossing plan is used as a module for all parts of the design;
each nave bay 1/2 central square; each said aisle 1/4 central square

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