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__________ are muscles that serve as the primary promoters of a movement.
a) Agonists
b) Antagonists
c) Fixators
d) Synergists

a) Agonists

Which of the following is not used as a criterion for naming muscles?
a) The locations of muscle attachments
b) The shape of the muscle
c) Whether the muscle is controlled by the involuntary or voluntary nervous system
d) The location of the muscle
e) The number of origins for the muscle

c) Whether the muscle is controlled by the involuntary or voluntary nervous system

Choose the false statement.
a) The hamstring crosses the knee joint.
b) The hamstring crosses the hip joint.
c) The hamstrings are fleshy muscles of the posterior thigh.
d) Hamstrings promote knee rotation.

d) Hamstrings promote knee rotation.

Which of the following muscles is named for its origin and insertion?
a) sternocleidomastoid
b) gluteus maximus
c) deltoid
d) trapezius

a) sternocleidomastoid

Which of the following muscles is named for its action?
a) frontalis
b) levator labii superioris
c) sartorius
d) gluteus minimus

b) levator labii superioris

Which of the following is correctly matched?
a) Circular arrangement of fascicles: describes the deltoid muscle
b) Parallel arrangement of fascicles: characteristic of sphincter muscles
c) Convergent arrangement of fascicles: fan shaped muscle
d) Pennate arrangement of fascicles: spindle shaped muscle

c) Convergent arrangement of fascicles: fan shaped muscle

Most skeletal muscles of the body act as:
a) first-class levers.
b) power levers.
c) second-class levers.
d) third-class levers.

d) third-class levers.

Which is correctly matched?
a) Deltoid: right angle
b) Rectus: straight
c) Transverse: parallel
d) Brevis: long

b) Rectus: straight

Where are most of the muscles that move the hand located?
a) wrist
b) forearm
c) fingers
d) palm of the hand

b) forearm

A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n) ________.
a) synergist
b) protagonist
c) fixator
d) antagonist

a) synergist

What are the muscles that are found at openings of the body collectively called?
a) divergent muscles
b) parallel muscles
c) circular muscles
d) convergent muscles

c) circular muscles

What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?
a) the shape
b) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
c) the number of neurons innervating it
d) the length

b) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________.
a) lever system is useless
b) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
c) load is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end
d) effort is farther than the load from the fulcrum

b) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum

When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?
a) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.
b) The muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively.
c) The muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively.
d) The muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively.

a) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.

Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?
a) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
b) The movements produced may be of graded intensity.
c) The bones serve as levers.
d) Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones.

a) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.

What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called?
a) an antagonist
b) a fixator
c) a synergist
d) an agonist

d) an agonist

The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean?
a)The muscle functions as a synergist.
b) The muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint.
c) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.
d) The muscle flexes and rotates a region.

c) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.

Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.

True

What is the major factor controlling how levers work?
a) the weight of the load
b) the direction the load is being moved
c) the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever
d) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

d) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

Which of the following describes fascicle arrangement in a pennate muscle?
a) The fascicles are in a fusiform arrangement.
b) The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.
c) The fascicular pattern is circular.
d) The fascicles form a triangle.

b) The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.

Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.

False

First-class levers ________.
a) are typified by tweezers or forceps
b) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
c) are the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes
d) have load at one end of the lever, fulcrum at the other, and effort applied somewhere in the middle

b) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location

Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle: effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage.

True

Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?
a) the type of action they cause
b) muscle location
c) muscle shape
d) the type of muscle fibers

d) the type of muscle fibers

The arrangement of a muscle's fascicles determines its range of motion and power.

True

Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.

False

In a pennate muscle pattern ________.
a) there is a narrow origin diverging to a broad insertion
b) muscles look like a feather
c) muscles appear to be straplike
d) there is a broad origin and fascicles converge toward a single tendon

b) muscles look like a feather

What type of muscle assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts?
a) a prime mover
b) an antagonist
c) a synergist
d) an agonist

c) a synergist

If L = load, F = fulcrum, and E = effort, what type of lever system is described as LEF?
a) second-class lever
b) third-class lever
c) fourth-class lever
d) first-class lever

b) third-class lever

Which is correctly matched?
a) Rectus: straight
b) Brevis: long
c) Deltoid: right angle
d) Transverse: parallel

a) Rectus: straight

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