the cell theory
all cells are produced by existing cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and all living things are made up of cells
genetic material, specialized organelles, a nucleus
eukaryotes contain _________________________________
rough er, golgi apparatus, released from the cell
what is the sequence an path of a protein in the cell?
regulates which materials enter and leave the cell, separates the cell from their surroundings, protection and support
what are the functions of the cell wall?
the cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. What are these cahnnals and pumps made of?
moe across the membrane in both directions
when the concentration of molecules on both sides of a membrane is the same, the molecules will ______________________
cell structure: large, and not found in all cells; the information center of the cell, contains genetic information, directs cell activity; contains chromatin composed on DNA plus protein
cell structure: smallest organelle; RNA and protein, may be free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough er, proteins are made here!
cell structure: a system of channels, continues with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; ribosomes are attached; proteins are synthesized at the ribosomes and enter this where they may be modified functional
cell structure: no ribosomes; synthesizes lipids; detoxificationof drugs; (many found in liver cells) molecules produced or modified here are enclosed in vesicles and then transported to the golgi apparatus
cell structure: consists of a stack of 3 to 20 curved membranes; modifies, sorts, and packages molecules from the er; contains enzymes that modify proteins and lipids; "customizes"; vesicles that leave this move to different locations in the cell or outside the cell
cell structure: membrane-enclosed sacs function to store water, sugars, salts, and pigments; small _____ are called vesicles; plant cells have a large, main ______
cell structure: contains digestive enzymes that digest macromolecules and bacteria, old materials in the cell
cell structure: makes ATP, site of chemical reactions that extract energy from food; double membranes; all eukaryotic cells have them; uses energy to move
cell structure: surrounded by double membrane; found only in plants; photosynthesis takes place; contains cholorphyll, a pigment; has its own DNA
substances are able to move from an area of lower concentration to an area of a higher concentration; requires energy; moves ions; molecular transport-protein pumps, proteins change shape
no energy required; moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration