Bio Midterm ch. 7

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the cell theory

all cells are produced by existing cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and all living things are made up of cells

a nucleus

prokaryotes lack _____________

genetic material, specialized organelles, a nucleus

eukaryotes contain _________________________________

bacteria

an example of a prokaryote is

ribosome

which is found in the cytoplasm? a)nucleolus b)ribosome c)chromatin d)cell wall

ribosome

which structure makes protein using coded instructions that come from the nucleus

mitochondria and chloroplasts

which organelles help provide cells with energy?

rough er, golgi apparatus, released from the cell

what is the sequence an path of a protein in the cell?

chloroplast

which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells?

helps a cell keep its shape and is involved in movement

what are the functions of the cytoskeleton?

support and protect the cell

the main function of the cell wall is to ___________________

regulates which materials enter and leave the cell, separates the cell from their surroundings, protection and support

what are the functions of the cell wall?

proteins

the cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. What are these cahnnals and pumps made of?

diffusion

__________ occurs because molecules constantly move and collide with each other

active transport

what means of particle transport that requires input of energy from the cell?

osmosis

the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called ________

moe across the membrane in both directions

when the concentration of molecules on both sides of a membrane is the same, the molecules will ______________________

Schleiden

realized all plants were made up of cells

Schwann

realized all animals were made up of cells

Hooke

examined cells in a sample of cork

Virchow

realized cells arive from preexisting cells

Brown

identified the nucleus of the cell

cell wall

cell structure: in plant cells, fungi, and bacteria; outside the cell membrane; permeable

nucleus

cell structure: large, and not found in all cells; the information center of the cell, contains genetic information, directs cell activity; contains chromatin composed on DNA plus protein

nucleolus

cell structure: made up of RNA and protein; ribosomes are made here

nuclear envelope

cell structure: is permeable, has a double membrane with pores

cytoplasm

cell structure: the area between the nucleus and the cell membrane

ribosomes

cell structure: smallest organelle; RNA and protein, may be free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough er, proteins are made here!

rough er

cell structure: a system of channels, continues with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope; ribosomes are attached; proteins are synthesized at the ribosomes and enter this where they may be modified functional

smooth er

cell structure: no ribosomes; synthesizes lipids; detoxificationof drugs; (many found in liver cells) molecules produced or modified here are enclosed in vesicles and then transported to the golgi apparatus

golgi apparatus

cell structure: consists of a stack of 3 to 20 curved membranes; modifies, sorts, and packages molecules from the er; contains enzymes that modify proteins and lipids; "customizes"; vesicles that leave this move to different locations in the cell or outside the cell

vacuoles

cell structure: membrane-enclosed sacs function to store water, sugars, salts, and pigments; small _____ are called vesicles; plant cells have a large, main ______

lysosome

cell structure: contains digestive enzymes that digest macromolecules and bacteria, old materials in the cell

mitochondria

cell structure: makes ATP, site of chemical reactions that extract energy from food; double membranes; all eukaryotic cells have them; uses energy to move

chloroplast

cell structure: surrounded by double membrane; found only in plants; photosynthesis takes place; contains cholorphyll, a pigment; has its own DNA

active transport

substances are able to move from an area of lower concentration to an area of a higher concentration; requires energy; moves ions; molecular transport-protein pumps, proteins change shape

passive transport

no energy required; moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

hypertonic

more solute outside of the cell; water moves to lower concentration; cell shrinks

isotonic

equal amounts of solute and solvent; is equilibrium

hypotonic

more solute inside of the cell; cell expands and may explode

solute

substance dissolved in a liquid, commonly salt

solvent

liquid, commonly water

phosolipids, protein pumps, and carbohydrate chains

a cell wall is composed of ___________________

hydrophilic

the "heads" in phosolipids are called _________ because they touch water

hydrophobic

the "tails" in phosolipids are called _________ because they dont touch water

fluid mosaic

a lipdi bilayer or the cell membrane is sometimes called a ______________

cell membrane

cell structure: proteins form a mosaic pattern; the proteins act as channels or pumps through which molecules can pass; carbohydrate chains are used as chemical identification

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