Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Which part of the brain is the largest?

The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum.

What are the three layers of the cranial meninges, from superficial to deep?

From superficial to deep, the three cranial meninges are the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater.

Which brain region is anterior to the fourth ventricle? Which is posterior to it?

The brain stem is anterior to the fourth ventricle, and the cerebellum is posterior to it.

Where is CSF reabsorbed?

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed by the arachnoid villi that project into the dural venous sinuses.

What part of the brain stem contains the pyramids?

The medulla oblongata contains the pyramids.

What part of the brain stem contains the pyramids?

The midbrain contains the cerebral peduncles.

Literally means "bridge"?

Pons means "bridge".

What does decussation mean?

Decussation means crossing to the opposite side.

What is the functional consequence of decussation of the pyramids?

The functional consequence of decussation of the pyramids is that each side of the cerebrum controls muscles on the opposite side of the body.

What is the importance of the cerebral peduncles?

The cerebral peduncles are the main sites through which tracts extend and nerve impulses are conducted between the superior parts of the brain and the inferior parts of the brain and the spinal cord.

Which structures contain the axons that carry information into and out of the cerebellum?

The cerebellar peduncles carry information into and out of the cerebellum.

What structure usually connects the right and left halves of the thalamus?

In about 70% of human brains, the intermediate mass connects the right and left halves of the thalamus.

What are the four major regions of the hypothalamus, from posterior to anterior?

From posterior to anterior, the four major regions of the hypothalamus are the mammillary, tuberal, supraoptic, and preoptic regions.

During development, does the gray matter or the white matter enlarge more rapidly? What are the brain folds, shallow grooves, and deep grooves called?

The gray matter enlarges more rapidly during development, in the process producing convolutions or gyri (folds), sulci (shallow grooves), and fissures (deep grooves).

Which tracts carry impulses between gyri of the same hemisphere?

Association tracts connect gyri of the same hemisphere.

Which tracts carry impulses between gyri in opposite hemispheres?

Commisural tracts connect gyri in opposite hemispheres.

Which tracts carry impulses between the cerebrum and thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord?

Projection tracts connect the cerebrum with the thalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord.

Where are the basal nuclei located relative to the thalamus?

The basal nuclei are lateral, superior, and inferior to the thalamus.

Which part of the limbic system functions with the cerebrum in memory?

The hippocampus is the part of the limbic system that functions with the cerebrum in memory.

What area of the cerebrum integrates interpretaion of visual, auditory, and somatic sensations?

The common integrative association area integrates interpretation of visual, auditory, and somatic sensations.

Which area of the cerebrum translates thoughts into speech?

Broca's speech area translates thoughts into speech.

Which area of the cerebrum interprets sensations related to taste?

The primary gustatory area interprets sensations related to taste.

What area of the cerebrum controls skilled muscular movements?

The premotor area controls skilled muscular movements.

What area of the cerebrum interprets pitch and rhythm?

The primary auditory area allows you to interpret pitch and rhythm.

What area of the cerebrum interprets shape, color, and movement of objects?

The primary visual area allows you to interpret shape, color, and movement of objects.

What area of the cerebrum controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes?

The frontal eye field area controls voluntary scanning movements of the eyes.

Which type of brain wave indicates emotional stress?

In an EEG, theta waves indicate emotional stress.

Where do axons in the olfactory tracts terminate?

Axons in the olfactory tracts terminate in the primary olfactory area in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex.

Where do most axons in the optic tracts terminate?

Most axons in the optic tracts terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.

Which branch of the oculomotor nerve is distributed to the superior rectus muscle?

The superior branch of the oculomotor nerve is distributed to the superior rectus muscle.

Which is the smallest cranial nerve.

The trochlear neve is the smallest cranial nerve.

How does the trigeminal nerve compare in size with the other cranial nerves?

The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve.

Where do the motor axons of the facial nerve originate?

Motor axons of the facial nerve originate in the pons.

What structures are found in the vestibular ganglia?

The vestibular ganglion contains cell bodies from sensory axons that arise in the semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle.

What structures are found in the spiral ganglia?

The spiral ganglion contains cell bodies from axons that arise in the spiral organ of the cochlea.

Through which foramen does the glossopharyngeal nerve exit the skull?

The glossopharyngeal nerve exits the skull through the jugular foramen.

Where is the vagus nerve located in the neck region?

The vagus nerve is located medial and posterior to the internal jugular vein and common carotid artery in the neck.

How does the accessory nerve differ from the other cranial nerves?

The accessory nerve is the only cranial nerve that originates from both the brain and spinal cord.

What important motor functions are related to the hypoglossal nerve?

Two important motor functions of the hypoglossal nerve are speech and swallowing.

What is the origin of the gray matter of the nervous system?

The gray matter of the nervous system derives from the mantel layer cells of the neural tube.

Which primary brain vesicle does not develop into a secondary brain vesicle?

The mesencephalon does not develop into a secondary brain vesicle.

The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________.

Medulla

What structures make up the limbic system?

Cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, amygdala, septal nuclei, mammillary bodies, anterior nucleus, medial nucleus, olfactory bulbs, fornix, stria terminalis, stria medullaris, medial forebrain bundle, and mammillothalamic tract.

The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.

Myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers.

Which meninges has two layers?

Cranial Dura Mater

Which gland is directly controlled by hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

Anterior Pituitary Gland

Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.

The dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord.

Which brain waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children?

Theta

The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.

Hypothalamus

True or False: A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei.

True

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?

Ependymal Cells

True or False: Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.

False

This region of the brain serves as the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord and brain stem.

Thalamus

During brain development, the gyri of the cerebrum are formed because

The gray matter grows faster than the underlying white matter.

The medial lemniscus is a band of white matter that extends through

The medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.

Broca's area ________.

Is considered a motor speech area

Which structures are directly involved in memory?

Association areas of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes; Parts of the limbic system, especially the hippocampus and amygdala; and the Diencephalon.

The cerebellar cortex consists of folia, which are

Parallel folds of gray matter

An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.

Visual Association Area

This portion of the cerebellum contributes to equilibrium and balance.

Flocculomodular Lobe

Declarative memory ________.

Is the ability to learn specific information.

True or False: The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.

True

True or False: The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting
and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.

True

What does the vagus nerve innervate?

Muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and soft palate that are used in swallowing, vocalization and coughing; Lungs, heart, glands of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; Smooth muscle of the respiratory passageways, esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine.

Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.

Afferent Nerves

The brain and spinal cord develop from the ______ neural tube.

Ectodermal

This brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerebral aqueduct.

Mesencephalon

What are the major regions of the brain?

Brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum.

Which brain structure consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain?

Brain Stem

Which brain structure consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus?

Diencephalon

Which meninges has two layers?

Cranial Dura Mater

This extension of the dura mater separates the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.

Falx Cerebri

The adult brain represents only ____ of the total body weight.

2%

This protects the brain by preventing the movement of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood into the brain tissue.

Blood Brain Barrier

Cerebrospinal fluid carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the ______ to neurons and neuroglia.

Blood

What is the fluid-filled cavity located in each hemisphere of the cerebrum?

Lateral Ventricle

This is a narrow fluid-filled cavity found along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus.

Third Ventricle

What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?

Mechanical protection, pH homeostasis, and circulation.

These are networks of capillaries found in the walls of the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid.

Choroid Plexuses

Cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed through these fingerlike projections found in the dural venous sinuses.

Arachnoid Villi

This is a netlike region of white and gray matter that extends throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness.

Reticular Formation

This region of the brain contains pneumotaxic and apneustic areas that help control respiration.

Pons

Pyramids are

White matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.

What are medullary nuclei?

Masses of gray matter in the medulla oblongata.

Which region of the brain contains the inferior olivary nucleus?

Medulla Oblongata

The medial lemniscus is a band of white matter that extends through

The medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.

Which nuclei are found in the pons?

Pontine nuclei, pneumotaxic area, and apneustic area.

Which nucleus found in the midbrain releases dopamine?

Substantia Nigra

The cerebellar cortex consists of folia, which are

Parallel folds of gray matter.

This structure carries sensory information coming from proprioceptors found in the trunk and limbs into the cerebellum.

Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle

This region of the brain serves as the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord and brain stem.

Thalamus

Which nuclei are found in the thalamus?

Anterior nucleus, medial nuclei, lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, pulvinar nucleus, ventral anterior nucleus, ventral lateral nucleus, ventral posterior nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, medial geniculate nucleus, intralaminar nuclei, midline nucleus, and reticular nucleus.

What is controlled by the hypothalamus?

Control of the ANS, production of hormones, regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, regulation of eating and drinking, control of body temperature, regulation of circadian rhythms and states of consciousness.

Which gland is directly controlled by hormones produced by the hypothalamus?

Anterior Pituitary Gland

Which region of the brain contains the pineal gland?

Epithalamus

During brain development, the gyri of the cerebrum are formed because

The gray matter grows faster than the underlying white matter.

Which structure conducts nerve impulses between the two different hemispheres of the cerebrum?

Corpus Callosum

This portion of the limbic system lies between the hippocampus and the parahippocampus gyrus.

Dentate Gyrus

Which functional area of the cerebrum is responsible for sensing body touch and temperature?

Primary Somatosensory Area

Which functional area of the cerebrum is responsible for vision?

Primary Visual Area

Which functional area of the cerebrum is responsible for conscious movements of the body?

Primary Motor Area

Which functional area of the cerebrum is responsible for speech?

Broca's Area

Which cranial nerves control movements of the eyeball?

III, IV, and VI

Cranial nerve V is also known as the _______________nerve.

Trigeminal

Which cranial nerve is responsible for regulating visceral activity?

Vagus

Which cranial nerve is primarily responsible for changing facial expressions?

Facial

Hand preference when writing or throwing is an example of

Hemispheric Lateralization

An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain waves primarily generated by

Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex

This type of brain wave occurs at regular intervals when a person is awake but not when a person is sleeping.

Beta Waves

Brain waves that appear in adults and children during periods of emotional stress are called

Theta Waves

Brain waves that appear during deep sleep are called

Delta Waves

Blood flows to the brain through the ________ arteries and away from the brain through the _______ vein.

internal carotid and vertebral; internal jugular

Describe the structure of the blood-brain barrier that provides its functional characteristics.

Tight junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain.

A deep indentation found along the medial plane that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the

Longitudinal Fissure

The central sulcus of the cerebrum separates the

Frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.

This lobe of the cerebrum is found deep to the other four lobes and thus cannot be observed from the surface.

Insula

Which type of tracts are used to conduct nerve impulses between gyri within the same cerebral hemisphere?

Association Tracts

These three areas of gray matter found in each cerebral hemisphere are important in helping to control the initiation and termination of skeletal muscle movements.

Basal Nuclei

Damage to this portion of the limbic system results in loss of memory of recent events and difficulty committing anything new to memory.

Hippocampus

A common type of disabling senile dementia that affects about 11% of the population over 65 and results in loss of reasoning and ability to care for oneself, is called

Alzheimer Disease

Which nerves are purely motor?

Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens, Accessory, and Hypoglossal.

What do autonomic motor neurons do?

Regulate visceral activities by either increasing (exciting) or decreasing (inhibiting) ongoing activities in their effector tissues (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands).

The motor axons of the accessory nerve originate in:

Anterior gray horn of first 5 segments of the cervical region of the spinal cord.

In what portion of the brain does the hypoglossal nucleus originate?

Medulla Oblongata

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