Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

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Which of the primary bronchi is large rin diameter

Right

which of the primary bronchi are more horizontal

Left

which of the primary bronchi is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways

Right

Smallest conducting respiratory passageways

Bronchiolies

separates the oral and nasal cavities

Palate

Major nerve stimulating the diaphragm

Phrenic nerve

food passageway posterior to the trachea

esophagus

closes off the larynx during swallowing

epiglottis

windpipe

trachea

actual site of gas exchange

alveoli

pleural layer covering the thorax walls

parietal pleura

pleural layer covering the lungs

visceral pleura

lumen of the larynx

glottis

fleshly lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area

conchae

with the exception of the stroma in the lungs which is _____________ ______________

elastic connective

the bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells which are well suited for their __________ ____________ function

gas exchange

Much less numerous cuboidal cells produce a fluid that coats the air exposed surface of alveolus and contains a lipid based molecule called ________________ that functions to __________ _____________ of the alveolar fluid

surfactant
surface tension

in healthy lungs it is always lower than atmosphere pressure

intrapleural pressure

pressure of air outside body

atmospheric pressure

as it decreases air flows into passageways of the lungs

intrapulmonary pressure

as it increases over atmospheric pressure air flows out of the lungs

intrapulmonary pressure

if this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure the lungs collapse

intrapleural pressure

rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough

intrapulmonary pressure

Diaphragm is contracted, moved down

INT VOL INC
INT PRESSURE DEC
SIZE OF LUNGS INC
DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW= INTO LUNG

Diaphragm is relaxed, moves superiorly

INT VOL DEC
INT PRESSURE INC
SIZE OF LUNGS DEC
DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW= OUT OF THE LUNG

Period of breathing when the air enters the lungs

inspiration

exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells

internal respiration

alternate flushing of air into and out of the lungs

expiration

exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood

external respiration

provide two examples of muscles that cause abdominal pressure to rise

INT OBL
RECT ABD

provide an example of muscles that depress the rib cage

LAT DORSI
INT INTERCOSTALS

sudden inspiration resulting from spasms of the diaphragm

hiccup

a deep breath is taken the glottis is closed and air is forced out o fth elungs against the glottis clears the lower respiratory passageways

coughing

a deep breath is taken the glottis is closed and air is forced out of the lungs against the glottis just described but clears the upper respiratory passageways

sneezing

increases ventilation of the lungs may be initiated by a need to increase oxygen levels in the blood

yawning

smooth out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla

Pons centers

respiratory control center in the medulla

inspiratory center

respond to overinflation of the lungs

stretch receptors in th elungs

nerves that carry activating impulses to the muscles of inspiration

intercostal and phrenic

lack or cessation of breathing

apnea

normal breathing in terms of rate and depth

eupnea

labored breathing or air hunger

dyspnea

chronic oxygen deficiency

hypoxia

condition characterised by increased mucus production which clogs respiratpry passageways and promotes coughing

chronic bronchitis

condition chracterised by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers

emphysema

respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms

asthma

together called COPD

chronic bronchitis and emphysema

incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking outlook is poor

lung cancer

infection spread by airborne bacteria a recent alarming increase in drug users and AID's victims

tuberculosis

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