Final Exam Review

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The major cause of insulin resistance is related to

excess body weight

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called

body mass index

If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age?

1885 kcal

About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?

4 hours

Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the following high-energy muscle compounds can he rely on for quick energy in this event?

creatine phosphate

What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?

High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal

During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?

transfer of energy to make ATP

For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except

beans

For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?

20-35%

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?

Choline

A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either

Vitamin B12 or folate

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually

Night blindness

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?

Children

What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?

Green leafy vegetables

All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except

the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight.

Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?

Deficiency is associated with hypertension

A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)

30

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

You work with a primary care physician to help newly pregnant women plan their diets. What vital information is needed to formulate a plan of weight gain?

Weight and height

Which of the following is not a characteristic of preeclampsia?

It almost always progresses slowly into eclampsia

A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?

Cigarette smoking

Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?

Age at time of pregnancy

It is still acceptable for a mother to breastfeed even if she has

An ordinary cold

In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?

First trimester

The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately

500

Which of the following foods should be especially limited in the diet of individuals with hemochromatosis?

Iron-fortified cereals

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of

excessive fluid retention

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

Intestinal absorption increases substantially

The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the

maternal fat stores

The common problems of pregnancy include all of the following except

low blood pressure

Penny is a new mom and, on the advice of her doctor, has been eating an extra whole-wheat bagel with strawberry jelly every night in addition to her nutrient-dense diet. Why did Penny receive this advice?

These bagels provide the extra carbohydrates and fiber lactating mothers need for lactose production

Keshan disease results from a deficiency of

selenium

Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition?

Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China

Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?

Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns

In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?

abdomen

Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?

fever

Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?

broccoli

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

inadequate absorption

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?

antioxidant agent

Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower

physical activity level

Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least

2.5 hours/week

What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?

Osteomalacia

Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?

Lipoic acid

In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?

abdomen

The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed

Satiety

A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with

cretinism

Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?

peaches and strawberries

What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?

infant's birth weight

To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except

saunas

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?

25-35

The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually

night blindness

How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?

Take the difference in body weight (lbs) before and after the event and multiply by 2 to determine cups of water loss

The components of fitness include all of the following except

bone fragility

Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?

It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment

The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in

complex carbohydrates

Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of fat cells is termed

hypertrophic obesity

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of

lactose

Which of the following minerals is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?

phosphorus

All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except

oxalates

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except

lactose in the diet

What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?

kidneys

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed

goat's milk

Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?

bleeding gums

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not

be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.

While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of

pellagra

After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as

appetite

Reasons why people choose to become vegetarians include

any of the above

Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?

fever

Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?

it correlates with disease risk

Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?

He has central obesity

Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?

corn oil

All of the following are forms of vitamin A except

retinoquinone.

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?

children

Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?

Xerophthalmia

Keratinization is the result of

deficiency of Vitamin A

Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?

meats and whole-grain cereals

What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?

public water

All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except

MFP factor

What is the name given to the ingestion of non-nutritive substances?

pica

A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may

increase the risk of infant death

Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?

age at time of pregnancy

Which of the following describes an infant born during the 43rd week of pregnancy?

post term

Tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk for all of the following except

macrosomia

Which of the following is not a feature of malnutrition in pregnancy?

Around the time of conception, it prevents the uterus from developing fully but spares the placenta

What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?

high carbohydrate

When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?

glucose

Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?

high carbohydrate diet

The optimal carbohydrate concentration of sports drinks for the endurance athlete is

6-8%

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?

carbohydrates

Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?

protein is not a major fuel for physical activity

What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?

.5 liter

Which of the following defines the body's set point?

Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

Which of the following is the best evidence that environment must play a role in obesity?

The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant

What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?

healthy weight

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except

adipocyte number

Which of the following does not represent a common environmental influence on eating behaviors?

Being in a pleasant atmosphere often lengthens the time of the meal but not the amount of food eaten

Which of the following is not a general feature of the trace minerals?

They are rarely found in dietary supplements

What is gestational diabetes?

Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy

How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?

38-42

Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

3 months called trimesters

Examine the following menu for a pregnant woman.

Breakfast
· 2 scrambled eggs
· 1 crushed wheat English muffin
· 1 cup orange juice
Lunch
· 2 pieces (4 oz) fried chicken
· 2 wheat rolls w/butter
· A half of a cup mashed potatoes and gravy
· Iced tea
Dinner
· 3 oz pork chop
· 1 ear corn on the cob
· Lettuce and tomato salad with 2 tbsp dressing
· 1 slice bread


According to the recommended food intake for pregnancy, which of the following food groups is the only one that is provided in sufficient amounts by this menu?

Meats

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time period is evidence of

edema

A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of

vitamin D

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

Biotin

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?

Riboflavin

On a per kcalorie basis, which of the following are the best sources of calcium?

vegetables

Which of the following is not a characteristic of obese people?

Most weight-loss programs that use state-of-the-art techniques allow for long-term weight loss

The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in

complex carbohydrates

Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?

It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?

nutrient dense foods

What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?

high-carb

You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure?

Basal metabolic rate

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called

body mass index

The major cause of insulin resistance is related to

excess body weight

An emotionally insecure person might overeat for all of the following reasons except

to satisfy energy needs only

Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?

fortified milk

What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?

iron

A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing

heat stroke

A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per

quarter hour

All of the following are categorized as fitness strength activities except

kickboxing

For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except

beans

Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?

2000

All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except

reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.

What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?

healthy weight

Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

exposure to sunlight

What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?

children

About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?

4 hours

A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed

35 inches

Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?

Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns

As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?

folate

According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?

1 drink a day

Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?

Folate and vitamin B12

Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

The AI for calcium is the same as in nonpregnancy

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to

provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of

lactose

All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except

sugars

The most common cause of iodine deficiency is

insufficient intake of iodine from foods.

All of the following are characteristics of copper in nutrition except

absorption from foods is poor.

What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?

Increase in its size to trap more iodine

Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?

Shellfish

Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except

Kidney failure

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except

Lactose in the diet

Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to

provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)

30

Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program?

Select less energy-dense foods

Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?

1

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