Myers, Psychology in Everyday Life, Chapter 11

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Personality

An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but which influences our behavior.

Free association

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.

Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

Ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

Superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience)

Psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

Oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

Fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

Defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

Psychodynamic theory

A Freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking and emotions as reflecting unconscious motives.

Projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides an unclear image designed to trigger projection of the test-taker's unconscious thoughts or feelings

Rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

Self-actualization

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

Self-transcendence

According to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self.

Unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

Self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

Trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-reports on a personality test

Factor

A cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together

Social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

Reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal personal factors, and environment

Self

your image and understanding of who you are; in modern psychology, the idea that this is the center of personality, organizing your thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)

Self-esteem

Our feelings of high or low self-worth

Self-serving bias

Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably

Individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership

Collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly

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