An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but which influences our behavior.
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience)
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
A Freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking and emotions as reflecting unconscious motives.
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides an unclear image designed to trigger projection of the test-taker's unconscious thoughts or feelings
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
According to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self.
Unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-reports on a personality test
A cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
the interacting influences of behavior, internal personal factors, and environment
your image and understanding of who you are; in modern psychology, the idea that this is the center of personality, organizing your thoughts, feelings, and actions.
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
Our feelings of high or low self-worth
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly