Ch. 4 Sensation and Perception

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similarity.

Objects that resemble one another are often perceived as a group. This is the perceptual principle of

parallel processing.

The simultaneous distribution of sensory information across different neural pathways is referred to as

Four

If a student asks you why we can see colors and you want to provide an answer based on the opponent-process theory of color vision, you tell the student it is because there are ________ different types of cone receptors.

color constancy.

When reading a book, it does not matter whether you are inside or outside because the black ink of the words on the white pages looks the same. This demonstrates an artist's ability to capitalize on

sensory receptors.

Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the

allow sensory information to travel rapidly through the brain.

The purpose of parallel processing is to

color constancy.

When reading a book, it does not matter whether you are inside or outside because the black ink of the words on the white pages looks the same. This demonstrates an artist's ability to capitalize on

Binocular

________ cues are ones that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes.

False

When light comes into your eye, it first passes through the lens of your eye.

NOT: sensory failure
maybe criterion

An Air Force pilot is flying over enemy lines. He has been assigned a target to destroy, but also knows that the target is in a heavily populated civilian area. His knowledge of the region represents what aspect of signal detection theory?

sensory adaptation.

You arrive at your friend's apartment for a big party at the end of the semester. When you first arrive, the music is so loud that it almost hurts your ears. After a couple of hours, even though the music is still at the same volume, it doesn't bother you anymore, and you like it. This change over time describes the process of

Weber's law.

When you are paid $1 instead of $2, it is a big deal. When you are paid $91 instead of $92, it feels less painful. This is similar to

NOT: frequency
Maybe timbre which is another word for perceptual quality.

Your mother's and sister's voices have the same pitch and loudness, but you can tell them apart on the telephone. This is due to the perceptual quality or ________ of their voices.

True

The minimal change in stimulation that is required to detect a difference between two stimuli is a "just noticeable difference."

vibrate the eardrum.

When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first

retina

When light enters the eye, it eventually reaches the light-sensitive ________ at the back of the eye.

NOT:opponent-process theory; trichromatic theory
Maybe: trichromatic theory; opponent-process theory

One way to think about how we process color images is that the ________ describes the events at the first level of neurons in the visual system, while the ________ best describes the activities of neurons in the rest of the visual system.

True

The cocktail party effect could be easily demonstrated in a crowded bar.

NOT: absolute threshold
Maybe: just noticeable difference

Which concept is most critical to a soldier wearing camouflage?

the optic nerve.

Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones. This spot exists because of

NOT:the figure-ground relationship.
Maybe : size constancy

If we see a German shepherd standing thirty feet from us, we still recognize its size even though the image on our retina is much smaller than if the dog was directly in front of us. This is primarily due to

detect head motion.

The purpose of semicircular canals in the inner ear is to

NOT: the figure-ground phenomenon.
Maybe the Ponzo Illusion.

Looking at a quarter in your hand casts a different image on your retina compared to looking at a quarter across the room, yet we know that the quarter is the same and retains the same dimensions. This phenomenon is known as

lens

The ________ is filled with a gelatinous material that helps focus light.

configuration.

A gestalt is best described as a(n)

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