Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of:

role-playing on attitude change.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:

cognitive dissonance.

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:

an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by:

cognitive dissonance theory.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when:

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

Based on findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter's orders when:

they saw another subject disobey instructions.

In 1942, reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 Jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. This incident illustrated that people are most likely to be destructively obedient when:

they perceive their orders to come from legitimate authority figures

The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the:

teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to stress.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

Participants in Milgram's obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of:

learning.

Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that:

actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.

Which of the following is true?

Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions.

Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if:

she is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting.

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must:

express its position as consistently as possible.

Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group in which:

individuals share a similar opinion.

When pressured to conform, people may do the opposite of what is expected in order to increase their sense of:

personal control.

Deindividuation refers to:

a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Which of the following most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?

Crowding sometimes intensifies people's reactions.

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?

cognitive dissonance theory

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest cognitive dissonance?

A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with.

The impact of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon is most clearly illustrated by:

the destructive obedience of participants in the Milgram experiments.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of shock when:

the "learner" was placed in a different room from the "teacher."

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:

complied with all the demands of the experiment.

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:

role-playing on attitudes.

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?

After agreeing to wear a small "Enforce Recycling" lapel pin, a woman agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law.

Kelly, a Republican, and Carlos, a Democrat, both believe that members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of other parties. Their beliefs best illustrate:

ingroup bias.

Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of:

group polarization.

University students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope. This best illustrates:

social loafing.

Social loafing is most likely to occur among:

audience members who are asked to applaud after a speaker is introduced.

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because:

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when:

the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

When a salesperson visits your home and asks you to try a free sample of a cleaning fluid, you agree. When he returns the following week and asks you to purchase an assortment of expensive cleaning products, you make the purchase. The salesperson appears to have made effective use of:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?

group polarization

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?

A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinions through discussion.

Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?

"We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

When New York University women were dressed in Ku Klux Klan-style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. This finding is best explained in terms of:

deindividuation.

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n):

role.

Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq's Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo's explanation best exemplified:

a situational attribution.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.

role-playing

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?

Group polarization is evident.

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of:

groupthink.

Which of the following is most clearly supported by research on social attraction?

Birds of a feather flock together.

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?

physical proximity

When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of:

the mere exposure effect.

Svetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.

be perceived as more socially skilled

Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation the presence of others often:

leads to all of the alternatives.

When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. His reaction most clearly illustrates one of the dynamics involved in:

the bystander effect.

The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:

assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

If one were to generalize from Sherif's study of conflict resolution between two groups of children campers, the best way for the United States and China to improve their relationship would be to:

conduct a joint space program designed to land humans on Mars.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

Which of the following is true of non-Western cultures, as compared to Western cultures? They have:

lower divorce rates and consider passionate love as less important for marriage.

The affectionate attachment that keeps a relationship going after passionate feelings cool is known as:

companionate love.

Ellie is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family's resources on his own interests. Ellie's relationship with her husband is best characterized as:

inequitable.

Although Natalie receives somewhat greater rewards from her marriage than does her husband, both are satisfied with the relationship because they each benefit in proportion to what they put into it. This best illustrates the significance of:

equity.

Coercive men who believe the rape myth are likely to engage in sexually aggressive behaviors that reflect a misleading:

social script.

After extensive exposure to X-rated sexual films, men are subsequently ________ accepting of women's sexual submission to men and _______ likely to perceive a woman's friendliness as sexual interest.

more; more

Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that:

many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

Most researchers agree that:

media violence is a factor in aggressive behavior.

People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.

similar to; different from

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates:

an ingroup bias.

Prejudice is most likely to develop as a way of justifying:

social inequalities.

Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?

their physical attractiveness

Four equally attractive women silently attended a 200-student class for zero, 5, 10, or 15 class sessions. When shown slides of each woman, students in the class rated the women who had attended ________ class sessions as the most attractive.

15

Increasing the number of people who are present during an emergency tends to:

decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?

being in a good mood

Mr. Hughes heard what sounded like cries for help from a swimmer located 30 yards from the ocean shoreline. He continued walking along the beach, however, because he figured that one of the many swimmers in the vicinity would provide help if it was needed. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics involved in:

the bystander effect.

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between two conflicting groups?

Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.

In an experiment by Dutton and Aron, one group of men were asked by an attractive woman to complete a short questionnaire immediately after they had crossed a swaying footbridge suspended 230 feet above the Capilano River. This experiment was designed to study the factors that contribute to:

passionate love.

Casandra, who is attractive and likable, has just telephoned Mike and asked him for a date. According to the two-factor theory of emotion, Mike is likely to experience the most intense romantic feelings for Casandra during their telephone conversation if he has just:

completed a series of aerobic exercises.

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves:

role-playing aggression.

Animals that have successfully fought to get food or mates become increasingly ferocious. This best illustrates that aggression is influenced by:

reinforcement.

After watching a large number of violent pornographic movies, Ollie will probably be:

less likely to believe that women are seriously harmed by rape.

In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of:

the just-world phenomenon.

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of:

the just-world phenomenon.

According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from:

frustration.

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that:

familiarity breeds fondness.

After three months of riding the 8:30 bus to work, Cindy has actually started to feel affection for the gruff and scowling old bus driver. Cindy's reaction best illustrates:

the mere exposure effect

Vince, an extraverted university freshman, has just moved into a dormitory. Vince is most likely to become friends with:

Bill, his assigned roommate who is majoring in computer science.

Which of the following people would be most likely to help Gita study for her history exam?

Gita's mother, who is excited about the unexpected bonus she just received from her employer

Sherif planned a disruption of the water supply in a Boy Scout camp in order to observe how social relationships are influenced by:

superordinate goals.

The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.

companionate; there is equity between the partners

Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates:

altruism.

Although the effect dissipates within an hour or so, one violent TV program is most likely to ________ in its viewer.

prime aggressive thoughts

In contrast to watching violence on television, participating in violent video games involves:

role-playing aggression.

In laboratory experiments, merely observing someone receive painful electric shocks leads viewers to think less of the victim. This reaction is best explained in terms of

role-playing aggression.

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of:

the scapegoat theory.

We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup as ________.

different from one another; similar to one another

People's physical attractiveness is unrelated to their:

feelings of popularity.

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by:

the mere exposure effect.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of:

a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency.

In one experiment, white Americans read a newspaper article about a foreign terrorist threat against all Americans. They subsequently expressed:

reduced prejudice against black Americans.

Opening her mail, Joan discovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just:

completed her daily run.

The tragic murder of Kitty Genovese outside her New York apartment stimulated social psychological research on:

altruism.

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:

may produce all of these effects.

An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of:

the just-world phenomenon.

People tend to perceive the members of an outgroup as ________ each other and the members of an ingroup as ________ each other.

similar to; different from

Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman's behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:

hindsight bias.

The mere exposure effect refers to the fact that people:

experience increasing attraction to novel stimuli that become more familiar.

People's physical attractiveness is unrelated to their:

self-esteem.

Makato, a 21-year-old university junior, is physically unattractive. Compared to good-looking students, Makato is more likely to:

have difficulty making a favorable impression on potential employers.

The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

The hostilities between two racial subgroups of a riverfront community were dramatically reduced when the threat of their river flooding its banks required that they work together to save their town. This best illustrates the impact of:

superordinate goals.

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?

the two-factor theory

The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain:

passionate love.

Our mental tapes of culturally prescribed ways of interacting with others in specific situations are called:

social scripts.

What determined whether college freshmen who had been randomly paired for a Welcome Week dance liked each other?

physical attractiveness

Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love?

the two-factor theory

Natasha and Dimitri have a fulfilling marital relationship because they readily confide their deepest hopes and fears to each other. This best illustrates the value of:

self-disclosure

Repeated exposure to pornographic films causes viewers to:

see their partners as less attractive and to be more accepting of short prison sentences for convicted rapists.

Joel's sexually violent behavior is influenced by his unrealistic sexual scripts, his repeated experience of ostracism, and his persistent abuse of alcohol. An integrated understanding of Joel's behavior within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by:

a biopsychosocial approach.

Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town. This best illustrates:

ingroup bias.

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the:

just-world phenomenon.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of:

diffusion of responsibility.

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men:

reported more positive feelings toward the woman.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of:

deindividuation.

We are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel:

a great sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally disapprove.

People's physical attractiveness is unrelated to their:

self-esteem.

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renée notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote:

increased self-awareness.

After they had first agreed to display a 3-inch "Be a Safe Driver" sign, California home owners were highly likely to permit the installation of a very large and unattractive "Drive Carefully" sign in their front yards. This best illustrates:

the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of:

deindividuation.

Aggression is defined as behavior that:

is intended to hurt another person.

Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is:

increased by exposure to pornography.

Svetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.

be perceived as more socially skilled

Experimental studies indicate that college men who are randomly assigned to play a violent video game:

experience increasing levels of arousal and become increasingly likely to hurt a fellow student.

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as:

social loafing.

Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn't. By the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?

group polarization

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set