ch 48 pretest

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Neurons communicate by _____. (see book section: Overview: Lines of Communication)

short-distance electrical signals
long-distance chemical signals
short-distance electrical signals and long-distance chemical signals
short-distance chemical signals and long-distance electrical signals
None of the listed responses is correct.

short-distance chemical signals and long-distance electrical signals

What are ganglia? (see book section: Overview: Lines of Communication)

neurons
brains
electrical signals
clusters of cell bodies
None of the listed responses is correct.

clusters of cell bodies

A neuron that transmits an impulse to the central nervous system after the neuron is stimulated by the environment is called a(n) _____. (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

sensory neuron
motor neuron
interneuron
autonomic neuron
effector

sensory neuron

Which of the following is specifically a part or a function of the central nervous system? (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

sensory receptors
sensory input
integration
motor output
dendrites

integration

The part of a neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the cell body is called a(n) _____. (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

nerve
synapse
neurotransmitter
dendrite
axon

dendrite

Cells that provide metabolic and structural support to the neurons are called _____. (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

sensory and motor neurons
neurotransmitters
interneurons
dendrites
glia

glia

If your fingers touch a hot stove and you suddenly pull back, you have experienced a reflex. What is the correct order of the information processing in this reflex? (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

sensory input, integration, motor output
motor output, sensory input, integration
motor output, integration, sensory input
integration, motor output, sensory input
integration, sensory input, motor output

sensory input, integration, motor output

Which of the following statements is correct? (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

A neuron only has a single axon.
Dendrites branch off axons.
Axons receive signals from other neurons.
The peripheral nervous system is most closely associated with interneurons.
None of the listed responses is correct.

A neuron only has a single axon.

In descriptions of synapse organization, the _____ cell is the transmitting neuron and the _____ is the neuron, muscle, or gland cell that receives the signal. (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

presynaptic ... postsynaptic
postsynaptic ... presynaptic
active ... passive
producer ... consumer
None of the listed responses is correct.

presynaptic ... postsynaptic

Which of the following statements is correct? (see book section: Concept 48.1: Neuron organization and structure reflect function in information transfer)

The nucleus of a neuron is located in the axon hillock.
Synaptic cells nourish neurons, insulate the axons of neurons, and/or regulate the extracellular fluid surrounding the neurons.
The vast majority of neurons in the brain are sensory neurons.
Sensory neurons transmit signals to muscle cells.
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct.

Which of the following statements about the resting potential is true? (see book section: Concept 48.2: Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron)

The neuron's plasma membrane is much more permeable to sodium than to potassium.
The concentration of sodium is much higher inside the cell than outside.
The chloride-hydrogen pump plays a role in maintaining the resting potential.
Inside the cell, the concentration of potassium is much higher than the concentration of sodium.
All of the listed responses are correct.

Inside the cell, the concentration of potassium is much higher than the concentration of sodium.

The sodium-potassium pump _____. (see book section: Concept 48.2: Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron)

expels sodium from the cell
expels sodium and potassium from the cell
pumps sodium into the cell
pumps sodium and potassium into the cell
allows ions to move in either direction through the membrane

expels sodium from the cell

Which of the following statements is true? (see book section: Concept 48.2: Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron)

Ion channels allow ions to cross the cell membrane against their concentration gradients.
Ion channels are selectively permeable, permitting only certain ions to pass.
All cells have an equilibrium potential, a difference in electrical charges across their plasma membrane.
Concentration gradients of proteins across the plasma membrane represent potential energy.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Ion channels are selectively permeable, permitting only certain ions to pass.

Blocking potassium ion channels in a mammalian cell membrane would _____. (see book section: Concept 48.2: Ion pumps and ion channels establish the resting potential of a neuron)

increase the resting potential
decrease the magnitude of the membrane potential
increase potassium's equilibrium potential
decrease sodium's equilibrium potential
increase the magnitude of the membrane potential

decrease the magnitude of the membrane potential

An increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential is called _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

hyperpolarization
hypopolarization
depolarization
a refractory period
None of the listed responses is correct.

hyperpolarization

A drug that causes potassium to leak out of a neuron, increasing the positive charge on the outside, would _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

make it easier to trigger action potentials in the neuron
cause the cell to release its neurotransmitter
speed up nerve signals traveling the length of the cell
act as a stimulant
inhibit transmission of nerve signals by the neuron

inhibit transmission of nerve signals by the neuron

Threshold is of great significance in the physiology of neurons because if threshold is not reached, _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

the neuron cannot regain its resting potential
the action potential will be "inversed," with a flux of sodium out of the cell rather than into it
positive-feedback depolarization will not occur
an action potential will be reached
None of the listed responses is correct.

positive-feedback depolarization will not occur

Schwann cells make up the _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

neurons
nodes of Ranvier
myelin sheath in the PNS
axons
myelin sheath in the CNS

myelin sheath in the PNS

An action potential is _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

a traveling wave of depolarization in the neuron membrane
a brief neutralization of the charges on sodium and potassium ions
a sudden increase in speed by the sodium-potassium pump
a sudden reversal of the sodium-potassium pump
None of the listed responses is correct.

a traveling wave of depolarization in the neuron membrane

The period in which an axon membrane cannot act is called _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

the refractory period
saltatory conduction
depolarization
a resting potential
an action potential

the refractory period

"Saltatory conduction" means that the membrane potential changes _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

only where there is diffusion of sodium and potassium ions
only at the nodes of Ranvier
along the entire length of the axon
in an all-or-none fashion
from polarized to depolarized and back to polarized

only at the nodes of Ranvier

Action potentials are generated along a neuron because _____. (see book section: Concept 48.3: Action potentials are the signals conducted by axons)

of cytoplasmic streaming within the neuron
depolarization of the membrane at one point causes an increase of permeability to sodium at the next point
they are pulled along by positive-negative attraction
the neuron cytoskeleton conducts electricity as long as an ion gradient is maintained by the sodium-potassium pump
All of the listed responses are correct.

depolarization of the membrane at one point causes an increase of permeability to sodium at the next point

How are neurons structurally adapted to chemically transmit impulses to neighboring neurons? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

Axon terminals contain neurotransmitter within synaptic vesicles.
They have numerous nodes of Ranvier.
They have numerous dendrites.
They have Schwann cells that surround axons.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Axon terminals contain neurotransmitter within synaptic vesicles.

Which of the following statements about the transmission across a typical chemical synapse is true? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

Neurotransmitter molecules are stored in vesicles in the dendrites.
Action potentials trigger chemical changes that make the neurotransmitter vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane of the receiving cell.
Vesicles containing neurotransmitter molecules diffuse to the receiving cell's plasma membrane.
Neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the sending cell's plasma membrane.
The binding of neurotransmitter molecules to receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane transmits an impulse across a synapse.

The binding of neurotransmitter molecules to receptors on the postsynaptic cell membrane transmits an impulse across a synapse.

Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that degrades acetylcholine. What effect on nerve transmission would occur following the administration of a chemical that inhibited acetylcholinesterase? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

There would be no effect.
Synaptic transmission would be prevented; muscle paralysis would occur.
It would be identical to giving an anesthetic, but it would last permanently.
Continuous excitatory postsynaptic potentials would occur in the postsynaptic neuron.
The presynaptic neuron would be inactivated.

Continuous excitatory postsynaptic potentials would occur in the postsynaptic neuron.

In humans, making more serotonin available to brain cells typically _____. (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

increases the stimulatory effects of caffeine
produces an effect on mood
counteracts the effects of alcohol
causes the heart to beat faster
depresses the central nervous system

produces an effect on mood

Which of the following is a natural pain reliever? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

epinephrine
acetylcholine
endorphins
dopamine
substance P

endorphins

Which of the following correctly pairs up a type of synapse and its characteristic? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

electrical synapse ... gap junctions
electrical synapse ... neurotransmitters
junctional synapses ... ligand-gated ion channels
chemical synapses ... gap junctions
None of the listed responses is correct.

electrical synapse ... gap junctions

Which of the following neurotransmitters typically has inhibitory effects? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

GABA
glutamate
norepinephrine
substance P
None of the listed responses is correct.

GABA

Which of the following is a mechanism by which neurotransmitters can be rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

The neurotransmitters are actively transported back into the presynaptic cells to be repackaged into synaptic vesicles.
The neurotransmitters are actively transported into glia to be metabolized as fuel.
Neurotransmitters are removed by simple diffusion.
Neurotransmitters are removed by enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter.
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

The interplay of multiple excitatory and inhibitory inputs most affects what part of a neuron? (see book section: Concept 48.4: Neurons communicate with other cells at synapses)

axon hillock
dendrites
the nucleus
the neuron's cytoskeleton
the axon

axon hillock

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