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most of the body water is in

the intracelluar fluid (ICF)

osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by

the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment

in which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema

tissue (interstitial) fluid

most body water comes from ____ whereas most body water is lost via ____

drinking; urine

fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called

osmoreceptors

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

promotes water conservation

water output is significantly controlled through variations in

urine volume

when blood volume and pressure are too high

ADH release is inhibited

prolonged exposure to cold weather can lead to

a negative water balance

dehydration results in increased blood and ECF osmolarity. this makes osmoreceptors stimulate ____ secretion by the hypothalamus ___ in the DCT and CD

ADH; increasing water reabsorption

hemorrhages

decrease body water but do not significantly affect osmolarity

long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with

a drop in blood osmolarity

this is the principal cation of the ECF

Na+

aldosterone receptors are found on cells of

the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

aldosterone

increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

hypernatremia is a plasma ____ concentration above normal

Na+

hypernatremia tends to cause all of the following except

a reduction in plasma volume

____ is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments

Na+

____ does not stimulate aldosterone secretion

high blood sodium concentration

women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstral cycle because estrogen mimics the action of

aldosterone

this is the most abundant cation of the ICF

K+

the total body water (TBW) content of a 70 kg young male is about

40 L

this is the greatest determinant of intracellular volume

K+

these scenarios are related with hyperkalemia except

resting membrane potential is more negative

in a state of hypokalemia

cells are hyperpolarized

hypokalemia can result from all of the following except from

aldosterone hyposecretion

this is the most abundant anion of the ECF

Cl-

chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ____ homeostasis

Na+

the calcium of the body fluids does/is not

a significant component of nucleic acids

calcium concentration is regulated by

hormones

the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids do/are not

form crystals with calcium in the presence of calsequestrin

excretion of phosphate

increases free calcium ions in the ECF

____ represents the complete chemical equation for the bicarbonate buffer system

CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> HCO3- + H+

tissue fluid normally has a pH of

7.35-7.45

the major chemical buffers system of the body are the ___ systems

bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein

what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in blood plasma

albumin

what protein(s) is/are the most important buffer(s) in erythrocytes

hemoglobin

a weak base

binds little H+ and has weak effect on pH

when the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time

reabsorb sodium

the pH of the intracellular fluid is buffered mainly by

proteins

the bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body is not for the action of the respiratory system, which

expels CO2 produced by the buffer system

an antiport system on the basal side of the renal tubule cells

exchanges K+ for Na+

proteins can buffer a drop of pH by their ____ side groups and can buffer an increase in pH by their ____ side groups

-NH2; -COOH

in a person with normal acid-base balance, there are no bicarbonate ions in urine because

they are consumed by neutralizing H+

in acidosis, the membrane potential of nerve cells is ___, which ____ the central nervous system

hyperpolarized; depresses

in acidosis, the kidneys compensate by

secreting more ammonia

breathing with the head inside a plastic bad can lead to

respiratory acidosis

excessive intake of antacids can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

chronic vomiting can lead to

metabolic alkalosis

emphysema can lead to

respiratory acidosis

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