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For the in-class listening activity

Flaccid Dysarthria Speech Characteristics

Breathy
Hypernasal/Nasal Emission
Imprecise Articulation
Labored Breathing
Inhalatory Stridor
Short Phrases
Harsh Voice
Monopith
Monoloudness
Diplophonia

Flaccid Dysarthria Characteristics (Other)

Overall Floppiness
Hypotonia
Hyporeflexia
Muscle Weakness

Possible Diagnoses for Flaccid Dysarthria

-Lower Motor Neuron system impairment
-CNs and SNs
-Myasthenia Gravis
-symptoms worsen over time
-Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis (flaccid dysphonia)
-TBI
-ALS
-Bell's Palsy

Treatment of MG (flaccid dysarthria)

rest, palatal lift/prosthetic, meds, breath support exercises, shorten utterances, AAC, decreasing nasality (See-Scape)

Treatment of UVFP (flaccid dysarthria)

positioning and digital manipulation, vocal function exercises, effortful closure techniques, laryngoplasty (collagen or fat injection), muscle reinnervation

Treatment of ALS (flaccid dysarthria)

symptom management, rest, nonverbal communication, AAC, palatal life, electrolarynx, dysphagia management

Treatment of TBI (flaccid dysarthria)

attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC

Spastic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics

Slow Rate
Harsh/Strained
Low Pitch
Mild Hypernasality
Monotone
Imprecise Consonants
Irregular Articulatory Breakdowns
Reduced Loudness
Short Phrases
Slow, Impercise, Irregular AMRs
With Fatigue and Stress Speech Worsens
Can Sound Slurred

Spastic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)

Spasm/Tonic Spasm
Hypertonia and reflexia
Unilateral Lower Facial Weakness
Hemi-plegia or paresis
Sensory Deficits

Possible Diagnoses for Spastic Dysarthria

-Bilateral UMN Damage
-CP
-TBI
-Vascular/Strokes

Treatment of TBI (spastic dysarthria)

attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC

Treatment of CP (spastic dysarthria)

articulation therapy, rest, muscle relaxing exercises, AAC, breath support, dysphagia management

Hypokinetic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics

Low Vocal Intensity
Very Soft Spoken
Monopitch
Harsh and/or Breathy
Undershot Articulation
Short Rushes of Speech

Hypokinetic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)

Shuffling/Identifiable Gait
Resting Tremors
Hypokinesia
-excessive inhibition of movement
Festinations

Possible Diagnoses for Hypokinetic Dysarthria

-Basal Ganglia Damage
-Parkinson's

Treatment for Parkinson's (hypokinetic dysarthria)

medication/dopamine, deep brain stimulation, LSVT

Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics

Inappropriate Pauses
Voice Stoppages
Excessive Loudness Variation
Effortful
Imprecise Consonants
Overall Quality Sounding Disfluent/Choppy

Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)

Abnormal/Excessive Involuntary Movement
Can Have Tremors, Spasms

Possible Diagnoses for Hyperkinetic Dysarthria

-Striatum Damage
-Different Types:
Chorea, dystonia, spasm, tremor, athetosis, tic, ballism
-Spasmodic Dysphonia
-Huntington's Disease
-Tourettes'

Treatment for Spasmodic Dysphonia (hyperkinetic dysarthria)

botox injections, surgical resection of RLN or modification of VFs

Treatment of Huntington's Disease (hyperkinetic dysarthria

DAF and metromnome for pacing, speech and voice management, medications for symptoms (treatment is most effective in the first few years on onset)

Ataxic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics

Scanning Speech/Excess and Equal Stress
Slow Rate
Prolonged Consonants and Vowels
Monopitch/Monoloudness
Irregular Articulatory Breakdowns
Imprecise Consonants
Distorted Vowels
Harsh Vocal Quality
General "Slurring" Quality
Hypernasality
Irregular AMRs

Ataxic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)

General Incoordination (not muscle strength)
Dysmetria-Over/Undershoot
Decomposition of movement
Jerky, Lack of Speed, Imprecise
Trunk Instability

Possible Diagnoses of Ataxic Dysarthria

-Cerebellar Disease
-Multiple Sclerosis
-Vascular - Cerebral hemorrhage, Vertebrobasilar Stroke
-Trauma -Diffuse Axonal Injury

Treatment of TBI (ataxic dysarthria)

attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC

AOS Speech Characteristics

Slow Rate
Prolonged Speech Segments
Abnormal Prosody
Consonant and Vowel Distortions
Distorted Substitutions
Articulatory Groping
Islands of Error Free Speech
Non-Core Speech Characteristics
-trial and error groping
-perseveration
-increased errors with increased word length
-difficulty initiating speech
-awareness of errors/self corrections
-automatic is better than propositional speech

AOS Characteristics (other)

Impaired Speech Motor Programming
Normal Neuromuscular Strength and Coordination
Normal Linguistic Processsing

Possible Diagnoses for AOS

-Left Frontal Cortex Damage
-Can Occur with Nonfluent Aphasia
-TBI
-Primary Progressive AOS
-Childhood AOS
-Stroke

Treatment of TBI (AOS)

attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC

Treatment of PPAOS (AOS)

target speech early, AAC, systematic and extensive drill 9to re-learn), self monitoring, variable practice, speed-accuracy tradeoff

Treatment of CAS (AOS)

PROMPT

General Treatment of AOS

integral stimulation therapy, sound production treatment, rate modification, melodic intonation therapy, masked auditory feedback

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