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developmental

the environment

John and Jim are identical twins, reared in different homes after their birth, due to the death of their parents. They are nineteen years of age and have personalities that differ sharply from each other. The reason for this difference in personality is most likely due to

cross sectional study

Dr. Jones wants to see if a person's IQ changes as they get older. To do this he takes three groups of subjects. Group I is made up of 10 year olds, Group II of 15 year olds, and Group III of 25 year olds. Dr. Jones tests all three groups for their IQ level. The design of this experiment is called

high levels of parental control and low levels of parental responsiveness.

Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they demonstrate:

acetylcholine

Alzheimer's disease involves a deterioration of neurons that produce:

O blood type

John's mother has light hair and O blood type (both are recessive). His father has dark curly hair (both dark and curly are dominant). In addition, John's father has O blood type. From this information alone, we can say for sure that John has

a cross-sectional research design

Tucker is a graduate student who is studying identity formation. He selects a group of 5-year-olds, a group of 10-year-olds, and a group of 15-year-olds, and interviews each group, asking them what they plan to be when they finish school. In this example, Tucker is using

a longitudinal research design

Jade is a graduate student who is studying the way in which selective attention develops during the preadolescent years. She selects a group of 10-year-olds, and she assesses their selective attention every six months over a two-year period. In this example, Jade is using

mental retardation

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include:

social influence

The corrupt behavior of many ordinary people who served as Nazi concentration camp guards best illustrates that immorality often results from:

preoperational

The child is very egocentric during which of Piaget's stages?

slightly advanced language skills and an increased rate of aggressiveness.

An ongoing study of 1100 children in 10 American cities has found that those who had spent the most time in day care facilities had:

fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence

The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________.

phenotype

Mary is blond with blue eyes and curly hair. She also has A blood type and dark skin. This is a description of Mary's

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed.

Habituation refers to the:

have high self-esteem and are self-reliant.

Authoritative parents are likely to have children who:

their marriage will have a higher-than-average probability of ending in divorce.

After living together for a year, Sylvia and Yefim have decided to marry. Research on premarital cohabitation most strongly suggests that:

46

Each cell of the body has how many chromosomes?

were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation:

conventional

Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state. Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates a(n) _______ morality.

teratogen

If research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a(n):

body contact

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with:

longitudinal study

Dr. Janczak wants to study the effects of poverty on one's self concept To do this he interviews a group of subjects from the inner city once every five years for a period of 30 years. This experiment is an example of what type of study?

attachment

Little Karen will approach and play with unfamiliar animals only if her mother first reassures her that it is safe to do so. This best illustrates the adaptive value of:

integrity

Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of:

sensorimotor period of cognitive development

When Teresa's mother hides her favorite doll under a blanket, Teresa acts as if it no longer exists, and she makes no attempt to look for it. Based on this information, you can infer that Teresa is in Piaget's

she lacked language skills for organizing her early life experiences.

Four-year-old Karen can't remember anything of the first few months of her life. This is best explained by the fact that:

infancy; adolescence

According to Erikson, trust is to ________ as identity is to ________.

the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood.

Adolescence extends from:

assimilation

A child who knows how to tie shoelaces would probably find it relatively easy to learn how to tie a bow. Piaget would call this thinking process

biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience.

Maturation refers to:

XY

The 23rd chromosome determines the sex of the child. A male pattern is

female ovaries; deepened male voice

Primary sex characteristics are to ________ as secondary sex characteristics are to ________.

Alzheimer's disease

Dementia is most commonly associated with:

inner speech

The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children's ability to solve problems is enhanced by:

postconventional

Despite huge legal costs and social disapproval, Mr. Lambers refuses to pay income taxes because his conscience will not allow him to support a government that spends billions of dollars on military weapons. Mr. Lambers' reasoning best illustrates Kohlberg's ________ stage.

excitement

Those who believe emotions are inherited or inborn say that the infant begins with the emotion of

assimilation

Jane has decided to try a different restaurant. Instead of going to McDonalds like she usually does, she decides to go to Burger King. Jane figures the two places are similar. According to Piaget, to Jane this new experience is an example of

insecure attachment

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatrician's waiting room, little Sandra tenaciously clings to her mother's skirt. Sandra most clearly shows signs of:

the cessation of menstruation

Menopause refers to:

insecure attachment.

When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, Harlow's infant monkeys demonstrated signs of:

the nine months before birth

The prenatal period refers to

accomodation

Sixteen-year-old Krystal thought that all she needed to do to earn an "A" was show up for class and pay attention, like she had in junior high. In her first year of high school she got Cs in all her classes because she didn't study enough. The change in Krystal's understanding of what is necessary to succeed in school illustrates the process that Piaget referred to as

zygote and finally develops into a fetus.

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n):

preconventional

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a(n) ________ morality.

begins approximately two years earlier on the average in girls than in boys

The onset of puberty

men; women

Critics of Kohlberg's theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more characteristic of ________ than of ________.

does not yet understand conversation

Patricia is upset because she is convinced that her brother has a bigger piece of cake than she does. Her dad quickly slices Patricia's piece of cake in two and tells her that she now has "more" cake. If Patricia calms down and is convinced that she does have more cake than her brother, it would suggest that she

rooting

When you go over to visit your friend's new baby, your friend exclaims, "Watch this! Every time I touch his cheek, he turns his mouth towards my finger!" Because you've taken psychology, you know that this phenomenon is called the ______ reflex.

theory of mind

Five-year-olds who were surprised to discover that a Band-Aids box contained pencils subsequently delighted in anticipating their friend's false belief about the contents of the box. This best illustrates that the children had developed a(n):

preoperational

Children's thought processes are particularly egocentric during which Piagetian stage?

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