Ch. 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Created by csgunnell 

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chromosome theory of inheritance

the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns

genetic recombination

the production of offspring with combinations of traits differing form those found in either parent

crossing over

accounts for the recombination of linked genes. occurs during prophase of meiosis I.

genetic map

an ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome

linkage map

a genetic map based on recombination frequencies

cytogenetic maps

locate genes with respect to chromosomal features

sex-linked gene

a gene located on a sex chromosome

nondisjunction

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II

aneuploidy

offspring has an abnormal number of a particular chromosome

trisomic

having three copies of a chromosome

monosomic

Referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.

polyploidy

organisms that have more than two complete chromosome sets

deletion

occus when a chromosomal fragment lacking a centromere is lost

duplication

when a deleted fragment becomes attached to a sister chromatid

inversion

chromosomal fragment is reattached to the original chromosome

translocation

fragment joins a nonhomologous chromosome

genomic imprinting

The parental effect on gene expression whereby identical alleles have different effects on offspring, depending on whether they arrive in the zygote via the ovum or via the sperm.

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