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Miller & Levine Biology

Before a cell divides, its DNA must first be

copied. (happens during the S phase)

Strands are said to be complementary

Each DNA strand has all info needed to reconstruct the other half because each base only pairs with one other base

Replication

duplication the DNA

DNA molecule separates into two strands and

produces two new complementary strands

Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a

template for each new strand

"unzipping"

separating hydrogen bonds to form a replication fork

base pairing rules

followed while DNA is replicated (A-T & C-G)

Result of Replication

2 DNA molecules identical to eachother, each molecule has an original strand and a new strand

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA

Telomeres

DNA at the tips of chromosomes that are difficult to replicate, use enzyme (telomerase) to speed it up

What is replication carried out by?

a series of enzymes

What bonds are between base pairs?

hydrogen bonds

Prokaryotic cells during replication

Starts at a single point and travels in both directions until the whole circular chromosome is copied

Eukaryotic cells during replication

begins at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA and goes in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied

Issues with replication

damaged regions of DNA is replicated and changes base sequence that alters genes and may produce serious consequences

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