the hierarchal feudal social order was defined and elaborated in unwritten rules of conduct, guidelines known as...
the french monarchy was established by the... rulers in central france with paris as its central city
judicial reforms/advisory councils
the english monarchy differed because of the... and the... won by the feudal barons
norman invasion, magna carta, parliment
what were the three major events that determined the history of the english monarchy
concordat of words/popes spiritual authority/emperors secular authority
this issue was discussed and settled at the... in 1122. what was the result of the meeting.
the papal monarchy resembled the feudal monarchies except it claimed to be guided by the ideal of...
a practice called... the buying and selling of church offices meant that the positions often went to the highest bidder
the most powerful pontiff during the middle ages was... whose aim was to unite europe under the papal banner
pope boniface VIII ruined the diplomacy and power established. he issued the... a proclamation of papal superiority over all secular rulers
at the fourth lateran council of 1215 the pope officially proclaimed the... as the outward sign of Gods grace and the only way to heaven
the beguines and the beghards won approval from the religious authorities while the group known as the... or also the... were condemned as heretics
apocalypse and plague
the late middle ages have been defined as the calamitous centuries because of the... and...
the bacillus disease, carried over by fleas on rats spread rapidly through europe killing more than a... of europea 70 million people
by 1450 the kings of... defeated and replaced the french rulers in sardenia sicily naples southern italy
in the middle east from 1347 on the... conquered greece and the balkan peninsula. by 1453 they had conquered the byzantine capital.
higher standard of living
the immediate consequence of the demographic crises increased social unrest and caused revolts but the long term effect was a... for the survivors
the new industries such as rag paper, salt production, weapons, gun powder, suction pump and other hydraulics and the spinning wheel increased productivity. the most significant technological innovation of the late middle ages was the...
Joan of arc
... helped the french to be victorious in the hundred years war, she became a heroine and a roman catholic saint later in time
the... kings after the hundred years war increased their territories by controlling the dukes of burgundy, by intelligent marriage arrangements, and by conquering lands previously controlled by england
in england the... represented the interest of nobles and the towns people. it also helped curb the papal power in england
1485-1509 successfully weakened the parliment control and with the help of advisors and diplomacy became a powerful monarch
followed the set pattern by the french and english monarchies while instead... remained divided into combative states
schism and heresay/avignon
the papal monarchy after pope Innocent IIIs success slowly declined and during the 14th century it was plagued by... the papal seat moved from rome to... in southern france
council of constance/pisan council
the great schism in the catholic church was finally resolved at the... 1414-1418 which deposed the avignon pope ignored the antipope who had been elected at the... and elected a new pope, martin v.
the 15th and 16th centuries popes failed to address pressing... concerns. they devoted their time to secular issues and acted like secular kings
town dwellers, bankers, merchants
although the church remained the principal financial supporter of the arts, rich... were emerging as the new patrons of the arts
during the renaissance italian artist and scholars looked back at the ancient... and... writings for inspiration
new interpretations of what happened during the renaissance reflected a change in... and the... none in politics and society
disputes among italys city states
shift in maritime trade
french invasion in florence
why did this patronage of the arts shift during the high renaissance
what was the leading commercial trade that made the city states so prosperous during the high middle age
the ruling families and elitist factions that emerged and took political control were called the...
guilds, business leaders, middle class
in the 15th century the power of the... ... and... lost control especially in venice milan and florence
technology changed weapons
battles were fought with mercenary troops
soldiers of fortune sold their military expertise
diplomacy as a peaceful alternative to arms
italian regimes began sending representatives to other states
how did the warfare change during this time period
the above negotiation fell apart in 1494 when... of france entered italy conquered florence and other areas
fall of constantinople
portugals opening of the sea route around africa to india
what three major events changed the course of the economic power and trade of the city states
literature and arts
the signori families used the wealth to educate their sons cultivating their taste in...
pope alexander VI
men and women exchanged philosophical ideas with a certain amount of freedom in the early renaissance. the most noted and powerful women during at this time was lucrezia borgia, the illegitimate daughter of...
invasion of charles VIII
what two events were major reason for the decline of florences dominance
a tattered christendom reunited
renaissance popes back in power
popes engaged in war
brought artistic riches to the church
patronized renaissance culture
what happened to the papacy after the council of constance
charles I/V, martin luther, charlemagne
during medieval times who pursued the dream of s united christendom
grandson of maximilian HRE
what was charles I/V unique family position
who led the protestant revolution in germany giving without intending to the HRE principalities advantages over charles I/V
mediterranean to atlantic
the center of commerce during 15th and 16th centuries shifted from the... sea to the... ocean
the population in the 15th and 16th centuries increased rapidly and shifted from... to... areas
tobacco, cotton, cocoa/gold, silver
the new world agricultural products were... the prices soared due to the raw materials such as... and...