Pharmacology Drug Classifications

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Pharmacology for Medical Assisting Drug Classification Flashcards

analgesic

agent that relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness (Tylenol, Advil, Motrin)

anesthetic

produces lack of feeling either local or general depending upon type and how administered (lidocaine, Xylocaine, Novocain)

antacid

neutralizes acid (Amphojel, Gelusil, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia)

antidepressant

prevents or relieves symptoms of depression (Tofranil, Marplan, Nardil)

antidiarrheal

prevents or relieves diarrhea; inhibits peristalsis and reduces fecal volume (Keopectate, Lomotil, Pepto-Bismol)

antidote

counteracts poisons and their effects (Narcan)

antiemetic

prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting (Dramamine, Marinol, Phenergan, Reglan, Tigan)

antifungal

destroys or inhibits the action of histamine (Diflucan, Lamisil, Lotrimin, Monistat, Nizoral, Terazol)

antihistamine

acts to prevent the action of histamine (allergies) (Allegra, Benadryl, Dimetane)

antihyperlipidemic

used to lower abnormally high blood levels of fatty substances (lipids). (Lipitor, Lopid, Mevacor, Nicobid, Zocor)

antihypertensive

prevents or controls high blood pressure (Catapres, Aldomet, Lopressor)

anti-inflammatory

prevents inflammation (Advil, Motrin, Naprosyn)

antimanic

used for treatment of manic episode of manic-depressive and bipolar disorder (lithium)

antineoplastic

prevents the replication of neoplastic cells; used to treat tumors (Myleran, Cytoxan)

antiparkinsonian

used for palliative relief of major symptoms of Parkinson disease (L-Dopa, Requip, Symmetrel, Tasar)

antipyretic

reduces fever (Tylenol, aspirin)

antituberculosis

used in treatment of tuberculosis; inhibits growth of mycobacteria (INH, Myambutal, Mycobutin, Priftin, PZA, Rifadin, Streptomycin)

antitumor necrosis factor

seems to slow if not halt altogether the destruction of joints by disrupting the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (Enbrel)

antitussive

prevents or relieves cough (codeine, dextrometorphan)

antiulcer

used in treatment of active duodenal ulcer and for pathological hypersecretory; controls stomach acid (Axid, Pepcid, Tagamet, Zantac)

antiviral

combats a specific viral disease (e.g. herpes) (Denavir, Famivir, Relenza, Retrovir, Tamiflu, Zovirax)

bronchodilator

dilates the bronchi (Proventil, Isuprel)

cardiac glycoside

exerts a positive inotropic effect on the heart; increases strength and force of contractions and slows heart rate (Digitalis preps)

contraceptive

device, method or agent that prevents conception

COX-2 Inhibitor

inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX-2) enzyme found in joints and other areas affected by inflammation

decongestant

reduces nasal congestion and/or swelling; produces vasoconstriction (Afrin, Sudafed)

disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

may influence the course of disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis (Arava, Cuprimine, Cytoxan, Rheumatrex, Ridaura)

diuretic

increases the excretion of urine (Diuril, Lasix, Osmitrol)

emetic

used to induce vomiting (Apomorphine HCl, Ipecac syrup)

expectorant

facilitates removal of secretion from broncho-pulmonary mucous membrane (Robitussin, Mucinex)

gastric acid-pump inhibitor

supresses gastric acid secretions; also used for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (Aciphex, Prevacid, Prilosec, Protonix)

hemostatic

controls or stops bleeding (Amicar, Humafac, vitamin K)

hypnotic

produces sleep or hypnosis; depresses CNS (chloral hydrate, Placidyl, Seconal)

hypoglycemic

lowers blood glucose level (Diabinese, insulin)

immunologic

induces immunity and prevents infectious diseases; stimulates body to produce antibodies (DTP, MMR, Engerix-B, Varivax)

laxative

loosens and promotes normal bowel elimination; relieves constipation (Dulcolax, Metamucil)

leukotriene receptor antagonist blocker

used for treatment and management of asthma (Singulair, Zyflo, Accolate)

mucolytic

breaks chemical bonds in mucus, lowering the viscosity (Mucomyst)

muscle relaxant

produces relaxation of skeletal muscle (Norflex, Paraflex, Robaxin, Skelaxin, Valium)

neuroleptic

modifies psychotic behavior (Risperdal, Zyprexa, Stelazine)

sedative

produces calming effect without causing sleep; depresses CNS (Amytal, Buticaps, phenobarbital)

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

selectively inhibits serotonin reuptake and results in potentiation of serotonergic neurotransmissions (Luvox, Paxilo, Prozac, Zoloft)

serotonin nonselective reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine (Effexor)

thrombolytic

dissolves an existing thrombus (clot) when administered soon after its occurence (Abbokinase, Activase, Eminase, Kabikinase, Streptase)

vasodilator

produces relaxation of blood vesels; lowers BP (Isordil, nitroglycerin)

vasopressor

produces contraction of muscles of capillaries and arteries; elevates BP; used to treat allergic reactions (Aramine, Levophed)

antianxiety

relieves anxiety and muscle tension (Librium, Valium)

antiarrhythmic

controls cardiac arrhythmias (lidocaine HCl, Xylocaine, Inderal)

antibiotic

destroys or inhibits growth of microorganisms (Kelfin, Rocephin, Pentids, penicillins, Augmentin)

anticholinergic

blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses; decreases oral and respiratory secretions (atropine, Artane)

anticoagulant

prevents or delays blood clotting (heparin, warfarin, Coumadin)

anticonvulsant

prevents or relieves convulsions / seizures (Tegretol, Zarontin, Dilantin)

antianemic

prevents or cures anemia

antianginal

prevents or relieves angina attacks

antidiabetic

used to manage diabetes

antidysrhythmic

controls and prevents cardiac dysrhythmias

antiflatulent

relieves gas and bloating in GI tract

antifungal

kills or inhibits growth of fungi

antigout

inhibits production of uric acid

anthelmintics

used to treat worm infections

anti-impotence

used to treat erectile dysfunction

anti-infective

kills and inhibits growth of bacteria

antimigraine

causes vasoconstriction in large intracranial arteries

antiprotozoal

destroys protozoa

antipsychotic

used to treat psychotic disorders

antiretroviral

used to manage HIV infections

antispasmodic

controls hypermotility in IBS

bone resorption inhibitor

treat and prevent osteoporosis

corticosteroid

supresses inflammation and modifies normal immune response

electrolyte replacement

treats or prevents electrolyte depletion

hormone replacement (HRT)

treat vasomotor symptoms of menopause

immunosuppressant

treat and prevent rejection of transplanted organs

lipid-lowering agent

lowers cholesterol

ophthalmic anti-infective

treat eye infections

otic preparations

treat ear conditions

platelet inhibitor

inhibits the ability of platelets to adhere to each other; similar to coagulant

smoking deterrent

used to manage nicotine withdrawl

thyroid hormone

increases basic metabolic rate

weight control agent

used to manage obesity

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