----------- is a sympton myocardial ischemia.
2mg is the sames as:
A 22 year old patient is experiencing an acute exacerberation of her asthma and iscomplaining of wheezing and shortness of breath. What is the most appropriate medication to help relieve her symptoms?
600mL is the same as:
Accolate is the brand name for what medication?
Acetylcysteine improves mucus clearance when given as an aerosol and should always be used as a mucoactive medication.
Acetylcysteine is incompatible in solution with what?
Activating an Atrovent inhaler in the eye may cause:
Drug stimulating a receptor for norepinephrine or epinephrine
Alternative term for adrenergic receptor
Aerosolized antibiotics have been most consistently used for which disease?
After reviewing your patient's char, you notice he experiences wheezing during his NebuPent treatments. What should you suggest to his physician?
Have the patient use a B-adrenergic bronchodilator before inhaling aerosolized NebuPent
Agents that paralyze skeletal muscle by simple competitive inhibition of acetylcholine at muscle receptor sites are called.....
Agonist is a drug or chemical that has a(n):
Albuterol belongs to what subgroup?
Alheimer's dementia is associated with cognitive deficits secondary to:
Decreased acetylcholine levels
All of the following are advantages of aerosolized drug therapy except:
Onset of action is very slow
All of the following are examples of topical administration except:
All of the following are possible names that a drug may accumulate, except:
All patients with angina should receive what drug for prophylaxis of a myocardial infarction?
Drug blocking a receptor for acetylocholine
An Anticholinergic that can be administered by aerosolization.
Antocoagulantsa work by:
Preventing the formation of the fibrin clot
Any substance that increases urine flow is called:
Arformoterol belongs to what subgroup?
Aspirin is :
an antiplatelet agent
Atrovent is approved for:
maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in COPD
Atrovet is supplied as a 0.02% solution. if you administer 2.5ml to a patient, how many milligrams are you giving?
B1 receptor stimulation:
Increases heart rate and contractile force
Barbiturates are often avoided because of what side effects?
High risk of abuse, Rapid development of tolerance, High risk of addiction, toxic potential
The proportion of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation
The bronchodilating action of adrenergic drugs is due to stimulation of:
Bupropion is classified as what?
Cardiac output depends on what factors?
Heart rate and stroke volume
Causes of airway inflammation include:
Trauma, Chronic bronchitis, Asthma
Drug causing stimulation of a receptor for acetylcholine
Alternative term for cholinergic receptor
A chronic and progressive neurologic disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and a compelling urge to move the legs while the patient is awake is referred to as:
RLS (Restless Leg Syndrome)
Combivent is a combination drug including which agents?
Albuterol and Ipratropium
common less toxic side effects of theophylline therapy includes
headache, gastric upset, anxiety, nervousness, diuresis
Congenital a1-antitrypsin deficiency, a genetic defect, can lead to what condition at an earlier age than is normal?
Corticosteroids are available in the U.S. in what dosage forms?
DPI, MDI, Nebulizer solution
Corticosteroids are used with asthmatics and patients with COPD to achieve what effect?
Breakdown of secretions
The currently recommended blood serum theophylline level for the management of asthma is:
5 to 15 micrograms (ug)/ml
The definition"when two drugs act on the same receptors and the combined effect is the simple sum of the two drugs effect describes:
The difference between a drug that the physician prescribes and one that can be bought OTC is:
The strength will be greater with a prescription
Disadvantages of theophylline therapy includes:
narrow therapeutic margin, toxic effects, unpredictable blood levels, need for individual dosing
Disease states that could benefit from the use of adrenergic bronchodilators include:
Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, bronchiectasis
Diseases with hypersecretion or poor clearance of secretions includes:
Cystic fibrosis, Pneumonia, Primary ciliary dyskinesia
A dosage for pedriaric use of Albuterol (0.5%) os 0.03ml/kg. You have a 22 l, 12 month-old patient in the ER. How many milliliters of solution will you need?
Dosage of theophylline is best monitored by
measurement of serum drug levels
The dose of aspirin for prevention of myocardial infarction is :
81 to 325 mg daily
The Drug Adinistration Phase describes:
The method by which a drug dose is made available to the body
A drug intended for therapy of congenital a1-antitrypsin deficiency is:
A drug or chemical that inhibits or block the receptor is called
A drug reaction reaction this is the opposite of, unusua, or absent of an effect is the definition of:
A drug that exhibits its pharmacologic activity once it is converted inside the body to its active form is called:
Drugs that directly influence circadian mechanisms are often referred to as:
Enteral route of administration includes all of the following except:
Epinephrine belongs to what subgroup?
Ultra short acting
Epinephrine stimulates which receptors sites.
A, B1, B2
An example of sedation would be
The FDA will track a new drug that is released for general clinical use for how long?
First six months
Formoterol belongs to what subgroup?
The general indication for clinical use of nonsteroidal antiasthma agents is
Prophylactic mangement of mild persistent asthma
How are most drugs prepared today:
How are Opioids (narcotic analgesics) characterized?
Highly addictive, known narcotic agents, used to treat moderate to severe pain, produce euphoria
How does Dornase alfa work?
It breaks down the DNA content in sputum
How does N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) work?
It substitutes sulfhydryl radicals for disulfide bonds in mucus
How is pain control by blocking transmission of the pain impulse from the damaged area achieved?
through the use of local anesthetics
How is Zileuton administered?
How long does it take Succinylcholine to reach its maximal paralyzing effect?
How many milliliters of mucus does a healthy person produce per 24 hours?
How much 20% Acetylcysteine solution would you use to prepare 5mL of a 10% solution?
An increase in blood theophylline levels is caused by:
Inhalation is the preferred route of administering catecholamines for which of the following reasons:
Rapid onset of action, smaller dosage used, reduced side effects, drug delivered to target organ, safe and painless route
Ipratropium agents may be indicated to treat
allergic rhinitis, the common cold, non-allergic rhinitis
Ipratropium bromide can be delivered by which of the following methods?
Nebulizer, MDI, Nasal spray
Ipratropium bromide can be used for all of the following except:
Ipratropium bromide is not:
a leukotriene modifier used to treat step 3 asthma
Is it appropriate to use formoterol as a rescue B-agonist bronchodilator?
Isoniazid is indicated to treat:
It is difficult to determine therapeutic doses of theophylline because:
individuals metabolize theophylline at different rates
The keyhole theory indicates that the larger the side chain attachment to a Catecholbase the:
Greater the b2 specificity
Leukotrienes exhibit what what effects?
Increased mucus secretion, inhibition of normal ciliary action, increased airway edema, bronchoconstriction, recruitment of other inflammatory cells into airways
Levalbuterol belongs to what subgroup?
The single (R)-isomer of Albuterol
Lidocaine is not considered a inotropic agent.
Lithium is consider to be a:
Long-acting B2 agonists are indicated for:
Maintenance therapy for asthmatics
Means by which nerve impulses are conducted includes:
Electrical and chemical
The mechanism of action of Xanthines is:
Metaproterenol belongs to what subgroup?
The most common adverse effect associated with thrombolytic agents is:
The most common side effect of anticholinergic bronchodilators is
The most commonly used anticoagulant is:
Mucociliary slowing, bronchodilation, and increased heart rate all are a result of what?
Mucus or mucociliary clearance can be abnormal in pulmonary diseases such as:
Bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis
The nebulizer used to aerosolize ribavitrin is:
Nicotine is capable of stimulating both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomiccholinergic receptors.
Nicotine replacement agents are indicated to do what?
relieve symptoms of nicotine withdrawal
Nitorglycerin relieves chest pain by:
dilating coronary arteries
Nitrates can be administered by what routes?
Transdermal, oral, intravenous, sublingual
Nitric Oxide is a:
Nonsteroidal antiasthma drugs are
Normal clearance of airway mucus can be alterd by changes in:
nothing by mouth
On administering a dose of atropine to your patient, which of the following effects would you not expect to see?
One cup is equivalent to how many mL of liquid?
Agent blocking or inhibiting the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system
agent causing stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
A patient complains of oral thrush and hoarseness since she has been using fluticasone by MDI. The physician asks you to make a suggestion to help her without discontinuing the drug. You suggest
Add a spacer and rinse the mouth after use
A patient is experiencing changes in heart rate and papillary response to light. What division of the nervous system is responsible for these changes?
Autonomic nervous system
Patients using ipratropium aerosols should be instructed to avoid allowing the aerosol to come in contact with what?
The peripheral nervous system consists of the following:
Autonomic nervous system and the Somatic nervous system
The Pharmacodynamic Phase describes:
What the drug does to the body
Pharmacologic treatment for narcolepsy includes:
The physical properties of mucus includes:
Adhesion,Cohesion, Elasticity, and Viscosity
A physician asked you to suggest an aerosolized antiinfective for a cystic fibrosis patient with chronic Pseumonas aeruginosa infection. What is the most appropriate medication?
A physician orders 3 ml of 0.83% Albuterol. How many milligrams of drug would you administer?
A physician orders that 12 mg of medication be deivered to your patient. If 30 mL of the solution contains 20 mg of active drug, how many milliliters will you need to administer?
Pirbuterol belongs to what subgroup?
Prior to mucomyst, you should always pre-treat with a bronchodilator to help prevent bronchospasms.
The product combining an inhaled steroid and a bronchodilator is
The prototype chronobiotic is:
Pulmozyme is the trade name for which mucoactive agent?
every 4 hours
four times daily
Racemic Epinephrine belongs to what subgroup?
Ultra short acting
Racemic epinephrine comes in what percent solution
Reduced extracellular levels of which neurotransmitter can contribute to the symptoms of RLS:
Relaxation of smooth airway muscle in the presence of reversible airflow obstruction is a general indication for the use of :
Results of a patients' pulmonary function test(PFT) show that the peak flow rate increased the most when she inhaled an aerosolized sympathomimetic agent and an aerosolized parasympatholytic agent. You would recommend that she be given what:
Salmeterol belongs to what subgroup?
A long acting B-adrenergic agent
Short-acting B2 agonists are indicated for:
Relief of acute reversible airflow obstruction
Side effects of systemic steroid treat includes:
HPA suppression, Cough, Dysphonia, Psychiatric reactions
A significant side effect of theophylline often seen in patients is
The sleep disorder characterized by persistent excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis is:
The sleep disorder characterized by undesirable motor, sensory, or behavioral phenomena is:
The sleep disorder characterizedby difficulty falling asleep, insufficient sleep , or nonrestorative sleep is:
Smoking cessation drugs are available in what forms?
gum, nasal spray, transdermal patch, and tablets
Sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of the secretions by decreasing the pH which alters mucus bonding.
The somatic portion of the nervous system controls which of the following :
Some antileukotrienes are
Zafirlukast, Zileuton, Montelukast
The standard for monitoring warfarin therapy is:
International normalized ratio (INR)
A substance capable of breaking down the structure of mucus
Succinylcholine is not a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent.
Agent blocking or inhibiting the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
Agent causing stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
A technique used for monitoring blockage that evaluates the conduction of an impulse across the neuromuscular junction using supramaximal stimulus at a frequency of 2hz over 2 seconds is referred to as what?
theophylline and caffeine are examples of :
Theophylline does not produce:
increased pulmonary vascular resistance
theophylline is classified as a bronchodilator because:
it has a relaxing effect on bronchial smooth muscle
Theophylline should not be used to treat
Thrombolytic agents should be given_____________ in relation to the onset of symptoms.
within 12 hours
Thrombolytics restore coronary blood flow by:
Dissolving the thrombus
Toxic products of nitric oxide includes=
nitrogen dioxide, formation of methemoglobin
The transcription on a written prerscription provides which of the following:
instructions to the patient
Treatment for NREM and REM sleep parasomnias frequently includes:
Avoidance of potential triggers and longer acting benzodiazepines
The two major control systems in the body are the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Uncontrolled hypertension increases the risks of which conditions?
Myocardial infarction, Peripheral artery disease, Angina, Stroke, Renal failur
Under normal circumstances circadian rhythms become synchronized to the:
Environmental light/dark cycle
The use of oral steroids for long periods can cause:
Use of systemic corticosteroids cannot cause:
Increased endogenous steroid production
The usual dose of nebulized cromolyn sodium is:
20 mg four times a day
What agents reduce total peripheral resistance by a direct action on vascular smooth muscle?
What are Barbiturates not indicated for?
What are Benzodiazepines used for?
To relieve anxiety
What are corticosteroids that are normally produced by the body called?
What are NSAIDS used for?
Treatment of moderate pain
What are side effects of aerosolized steroid use
Cough, Dysphonia, Oral thrush
What are some examples of steroids available for inhalation?
Flunisolide, Flovent, Qvar
What are some local airway side effects of aerosolized pentamidine?
Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of breath, Bad taste, Spontaneous pneumothoraces
What are some of the manifestations of digoxin toxicity?
Hyperkalemia, premature ventricular contractions, bigeminal rhythm, nausea,abdominal pain
What are some precautionary measures are suggested when administering pentamidine to reduce the risk of both drug exposure and TB infection?
Use a nebulizer system with one way valves and expiratory filter, Administer aerosol in a negative pressure room, Do not expose pregnant women and nursing mothers to the drug, Use barrier protection, Stop nebulization if the patient takes the mouthpiece out of the mouth
What are some sleep disorders?
Insomnia, Narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome, Parasomnias
What are te classes of diuretuics?
Loops, potassium sparing, Osmotics, Thiazides, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
What are the first line agents for treating uncomplicated hypertension?
Thiazide diuretics, ACEIs, ARBs, CCBs
What are the most common adverse reactions associated with the use of diuretics?
Volume depletion, electrolyte abnormalities
What are the natural penicillins primarily effective against?
Gram-positive bacteria, Anaerobes
What are the primary uses of neuromuscular blocking agents?
facilitate endotracheal intubation, enhance patient-ventilator synchrony, relax muscle during surgery, reduce intercrainial pressure on intubated patients
What are the results of the use of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors(CAIs)?
What are the steroids responsible for secondary male sex characteristics
What are the two drugs that make up Advair?
Flovent & Serevent
What are the two phases of REM sleep?
Tonic and phasic
What are Xanax, Versed, and Ativan examples of?
What blood pressure in adults is considered hypertension?
140/90 mm Hg
What can be used as a rescue drug?
Albuterol, Combivent, DuoNeb
What can Respiratory synctial virus (RSV) cause?
What do Thiazides increase the secretion of?
Sodium, Chloride, Potassium, Magnesium
What does a bactericidal agent do?
What drug is used to reduce hepatic injury with acetaminophen overdose?
What drug is used to treat hypoxic respiratory failure in newborns with pulmonary hypertension?
What effect does neuromuscular blockers have on the body?
They paralyze skeletal muscle
What group of diuretic agents is the most potent?
What have Aminoglycosides, such as tobramycin, have been aerosolized specifically for the treatment of?
What is a common side effect of inhaled corticosteroids?
What is Atropiune given for?
To increase heart rate
What is considered a mainstay for improving hypotensive episodes?
What is damage to vital organs resulting from hypotension called?
What is inhaled pentamidine indicated for?
Prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
What is Lidocaine used to treat?
What is not a complcation in the use of diuretics?
What is not a function of mucous in the body?
Improvement of gas exchange
What is not a hazard associated woth the use of acetylcysteine?
What is one antimycobacterial not used to treat tuberculosis?
What is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and a major cause of disability worldwide?
What is Prolastin not used pharmacologically to treat?
What is Relenza?
An antiviral agent
What is Succinylcholine considered as?
What is the adrenergic effect on bronchial smooth muscle?
What is the approved dose of pentamidine by aerosol for prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia?
300mg once every four weeks
What is the asthma paradox?
Despite the fact that new treatments are available and more awareness of the condition the morbitity and mortality rates of asthma continues to rise.
What is the classification of Digoxn?
What is the classification of Dopamine?
What is the classification of Doubtamine?
What is the classification of Isoproterenol?
What is the classification of Lidocaine
What is the classification of Milrinone
What is the classification of Norepinephrine?
What is the classification of Procainamide
What is the classification of Vasopressin
What is the clinical indication for use of antileukotriene drug therapy, such as montelukast, in asthma?
As an alternative to inhaled steroids
What is the definition of pharmacology?
The study of drugs (chemicals)
What is the major limitation of Prolastin therapy?
What is the most important factor in the management of sudden cardiac death?
timely and efficient CPR and defibrillation
What is the most selected osmotic diuretic agent?
What is the normal dose for ribavirin?
20mg/ml for 12 to 18 hours per day for 3 to 7 days
What is the only B-agonist formulation that is a single isomer and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for aerosol delivery.
What is the only once-a-day anticholinergic on the market?
What is the pharmacologic modification of painful and frightening experiences while remaining conscious during medical procedures?
What is the recommended dose of nitric oxide?
What is the simplest and most common method of preparing bacteria for examination and identification?
What is the trade name for aerosolized pentamidine?
What is the trade name for Beclomethasone diproionate HFA?
What is the trade name for Budesonide?
What is the trade name for Budesonide/formoterol fumarate HFA?
What is the trade name for Flunisolide?
What is the trade name for Fluticasone propionate?
What is the trade name for Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol
What is the trade name for Mometasone furoate?
What is the trade name for Mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate HFA?
What is the trade name for ribavirin?
What is the trade name of Arformoterol?
What is the trade name of Formoterol?
What is the trade name of Pirbuterol?
What is the trade name of Racmic Epinephrine?
What is the trade name of Salmeterol?
What is Zafirlukast?
A leukotriene receptor antagonist
What is Zyban classified as?
What monoclonal antibody is used to treat asthma?
What nonsteroidal antiasthma agent is formulated as a subcutaneous injection?
What parasympatholytic agent is used in cardiac resucitation for asystole?
What respiratory care drugs does Zileuton intract with?
What routes are Pentamidine administered?
Inhaled aerosol, Intramuscular injection, Intravenous injection
What systems respond to nicotine stimulation?
sympathetic system, parasympathetic system
What type of drug will prevent the conversion of short term experiences into permanent memory?
When a clinician is referring to a drug, which name is recommended that you use:
When using the "Train-of-four", how many twitches indicate that about 80% of the receptors are occupied with a blocker?
Which cardiac agents may be administered endotracheally?
Lidocaine, Epinephrine, Atropine
Which diuretics has been associated with hyperglycemia?
Thiazide and loop
Which drug stimulates skeletal muscle and the central nervous system most strongly?
Which drug would you recommend for control of seizure activity?
Which electrolyte is not increased by the use of loop diuretics?
Which nebulizer is used to administer aerosolized pentamidine?
which neuromuscular blocker causes muscle contractions(twitching)?
Which of the following agents are currently approved for administration as an aerosolized mucoactive agent?
N-acetylcysteine, Dornase alfa
Which of the following is the definition of a drug?
Any chemical that alters the organism's function or processes
Which of the following is the principal organ for drug metabolism:
Which of the following is the site of primary drug excretion:
Which physiologic effects is not produced by xanthines?
Which route of drug adminstration is the most direct with rapid onset and peak effects, and provides 100% availability of the drug:
Which type of diuretic is used for the treatment of altitude sickness?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Which type pf impulses travel from the brain to the neuroeffector sites?
While working a shift in the neonatal intensive care unit you observe a patient receiving caffeinecitrate. What is the patient's likely diagnosis?
Apnea of prematurity
Yoour patient's sputum culture indicated the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Which medication is appropriate to treat this infection?
You administer 0.5 ml of a 1:200 strength drug; how many milligrams of active ingredient are you giving?
You are administering an aerosolized bronchodilator to your patient. her pretreatment pulse was 85 bpm. You would stop treatment if her pulse reached:
You are working in the ER when a 77 year old man with viral hepatitis comes in complaining of nausea. His medications include Combivent, Advair and theophylline. Which drug is likely the cause of his nausea?
You are working the night shift when a 68 year old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is admitted through the ER. He has been given Combivent and inhaled corticosteroids. The intern on call asks your recommendation for additional medication to give the patient. You would recommend.....
You enter the room of a 2-year old patient who presents with the characteristic barking cough found with croup. Once the diagnosis is confirme, which ofthe following medications could you recommend to help provide relief from subglottic swelling.
You have 3mg/ml of active ingredient; what is the percent solution of this drug?
You have 80 mg of Phenobarbital in 20 mL of a Phenobarbital elixir. How many milliliters of elixir would you use to give a 20 mg dose?
You have a patient with cystic fibrosis who needs an aerosol medication to reduce the viscosity and adhesivity of infected respiratory secretions. What agent would you recommend?
You have atropine 0.4 mg/mL in a vial of liquid. How many milliliters would be needed for a 1.0 mg dose?
You receive an order to administer 5 ml of Albuterol by SVN. You would:
Call the physician to confirm the medication dose
Your 75 year old patient with a history of COPD and bipolar disorder is experiencing tremors, cognitive slowing, and polyuria. His medications includes Combivent, Advair, and lithium. Which drug is most likely to be causing his symptoms?
Your patient has been given succinylcholine in an effort to facilitate endotracheal intubation. However, you are unable to place and endotracheal . What should you do?
manually ventilate the patient until succinylcholine wears off
Your patient has cerebral edema. Which group of diuretic agents would you expect to be administered?
Your patient has mild hypertension. Which group of diuretic agents would you expect the physician to prescribe?
Your patient is diagnosed with persistent asthma. Which type of drug would you recommend for maintenance bronchodilation and control of bronchospasm?
Long-acting adrenergic agent
Your patient presentswith post extubation stridor. You recommend Racemic epinephrine for its:
a-adrenergic vasoconstricting effect
Your patient requires a dose of adenosine for confirmed supraventricular tachycardia(SVT). His only line is a peripheral IV linein the right arm. How should you proceed?
Administer the dose quickly and immediately follow with a saline flush, and hold the patient's right arm in an upright position while administering the dose
Zanamivir would be indicated for: