RCP 113 Final Exam Study Guide

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Questions from all semester tests compiled for final exam

----------- is a sympton myocardial ischemia.

Angina

2mg is the sames as:

0.002g

A 22 year old patient is experiencing an acute exacerberation of her asthma and iscomplaining of wheezing and shortness of breath. What is the most appropriate medication to help relieve her symptoms?

Albuterol

600mL is the same as:

0.6L

Accolate is the brand name for what medication?

Zafirlukast

Acetylcysteine improves mucus clearance when given as an aerosol and should always be used as a mucoactive medication.

false

Acetylcysteine is incompatible in solution with what?

Certain antibiotics

Activating an Atrovent inhaler in the eye may cause:

pupil dilation

Adrenergic

Drug stimulating a receptor for norepinephrine or epinephrine

Adrenoceptor

Alternative term for adrenergic receptor

Aerosolized antibiotics have been most consistently used for which disease?

Cystic fibrosis

After reviewing your patient's char, you notice he experiences wheezing during his NebuPent treatments. What should you suggest to his physician?

Have the patient use a B-adrenergic bronchodilator before inhaling aerosolized NebuPent

Agents that paralyze skeletal muscle by simple competitive inhibition of acetylcholine at muscle receptor sites are called.....

nondepolarizing

Agonist is a drug or chemical that has a(n):

stimulating effect

Albuterol belongs to what subgroup?

short acting

Alheimer's dementia is associated with cognitive deficits secondary to:

Decreased acetylcholine levels

All of the following are advantages of aerosolized drug therapy except:

Onset of action is very slow

All of the following are examples of topical administration except:

Patch

All of the following are possible names that a drug may accumulate, except:

Compound name

All patients with angina should receive what drug for prophylaxis of a myocardial infarction?

Aspirin

Anticholinergic

Drug blocking a receptor for acetylocholine

An Anticholinergic that can be administered by aerosolization.

Ipratropium bromide

Antocoagulantsa work by:

Preventing the formation of the fibrin clot

Any substance that increases urine flow is called:

A diuretic

Arformoterol belongs to what subgroup?

long acting

Aspirin is :

an antiplatelet agent

Atrovent is approved for:

maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in COPD

Atrovet is supplied as a 0.02% solution. if you administer 2.5ml to a patient, how many milligrams are you giving?

0.5 mg

B1 receptor stimulation:

Increases heart rate and contractile force

Barbiturates are often avoided because of what side effects?

High risk of abuse, Rapid development of tolerance, High risk of addiction, toxic potential

bid

twice daily

Bioavailability indicates:

The proportion of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation

The bronchodilating action of adrenergic drugs is due to stimulation of:

B2 receptors

Bupropion is classified as what?

antidepressant

Cardiac output depends on what factors?

Heart rate and stroke volume

Causes of airway inflammation include:

Trauma, Chronic bronchitis, Asthma

Centi

1/100

Cholinergic

Drug causing stimulation of a receptor for acetylcholine

Cholinoceptor

Alternative term for cholinergic receptor

A chronic and progressive neurologic disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and a compelling urge to move the legs while the patient is awake is referred to as:

RLS (Restless Leg Syndrome)

Combivent is a combination drug including which agents?

Albuterol and Ipratropium

common less toxic side effects of theophylline therapy includes

headache, gastric upset, anxiety, nervousness, diuresis

Congenital a1-antitrypsin deficiency, a genetic defect, can lead to what condition at an earlier age than is normal?

Emphysema

Corticosteroids are available in the U.S. in what dosage forms?

DPI, MDI, Nebulizer solution

Corticosteroids are used with asthmatics and patients with COPD to achieve what effect?

Breakdown of secretions

The currently recommended blood serum theophylline level for the management of asthma is:

5 to 15 micrograms (ug)/ml

The definition"when two drugs act on the same receptors and the combined effect is the simple sum of the two drugs effect describes:

Additivity

The difference between a drug that the physician prescribes and one that can be bought OTC is:

The strength will be greater with a prescription
formulation

Disadvantages of theophylline therapy includes:

narrow therapeutic margin, toxic effects, unpredictable blood levels, need for individual dosing

Disease states that could benefit from the use of adrenergic bronchodilators include:

Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, bronchiectasis

Diseases with hypersecretion or poor clearance of secretions includes:

Cystic fibrosis, Pneumonia, Primary ciliary dyskinesia

A dosage for pedriaric use of Albuterol (0.5%) os 0.03ml/kg. You have a 22 l, 12 month-old patient in the ER. How many milliliters of solution will you need?

0.3 mL

Dosage of theophylline is best monitored by

measurement of serum drug levels

The dose of aspirin for prevention of myocardial infarction is :

81 to 325 mg daily

The Drug Adinistration Phase describes:

The method by which a drug dose is made available to the body

A drug intended for therapy of congenital a1-antitrypsin deficiency is:

Prolastin

A drug or chemical that inhibits or block the receptor is called

antagonist

A drug reaction reaction this is the opposite of, unusua, or absent of an effect is the definition of:

Idiosyncratic effect

A drug that exhibits its pharmacologic activity once it is converted inside the body to its active form is called:

A prodrug

Drugs that directly influence circadian mechanisms are often referred to as:

Chronobiotics

Enteral route of administration includes all of the following except:

Subcutaneous

Epinephrine belongs to what subgroup?

Ultra short acting

Epinephrine stimulates which receptors sites.

A, B1, B2

An example of sedation would be

Morphine

The FDA will track a new drug that is released for general clinical use for how long?

First six months

Formoterol belongs to what subgroup?

Long acting

The general indication for clinical use of nonsteroidal antiasthma agents is

Prophylactic mangement of mild persistent asthma

How are most drugs prepared today:

Chemical synthesis

How are Opioids (narcotic analgesics) characterized?

Highly addictive, known narcotic agents, used to treat moderate to severe pain, produce euphoria

How does Dornase alfa work?

It breaks down the DNA content in sputum

How does N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) work?

It substitutes sulfhydryl radicals for disulfide bonds in mucus

How is pain control by blocking transmission of the pain impulse from the damaged area achieved?

through the use of local anesthetics

How is Zileuton administered?

Tablet

How long does it take Succinylcholine to reach its maximal paralyzing effect?

60-90 seconds

How many milliliters of mucus does a healthy person produce per 24 hours?

100

How much 20% Acetylcysteine solution would you use to prepare 5mL of a 10% solution?

2.5 mL

IM

intramuscular

An increase in blood theophylline levels is caused by:

renal failure

Inhalation is the preferred route of administering catecholamines for which of the following reasons:

Rapid onset of action, smaller dosage used, reduced side effects, drug delivered to target organ, safe and painless route

Ipratropium agents may be indicated to treat

allergic rhinitis, the common cold, non-allergic rhinitis

Ipratropium bromide can be delivered by which of the following methods?

Nebulizer, MDI, Nasal spray

Ipratropium bromide can be used for all of the following except:

rescue drug

Ipratropium bromide is not:

a leukotriene modifier used to treat step 3 asthma

Is it appropriate to use formoterol as a rescue B-agonist bronchodilator?

No

Isoniazid is indicated to treat:

Tuberculosis (TB)

It is difficult to determine therapeutic doses of theophylline because:

individuals metabolize theophylline at different rates

IV

intravenous

The keyhole theory indicates that the larger the side chain attachment to a Catecholbase the:

Greater the b2 specificity

Leukotrienes exhibit what what effects?

Increased mucus secretion, inhibition of normal ciliary action, increased airway edema, bronchoconstriction, recruitment of other inflammatory cells into airways

Levalbuterol belongs to what subgroup?

short acting

Levalbuterol is

The single (R)-isomer of Albuterol

Lidocaine is not considered a inotropic agent.

True

Liter

Volume

Lithium is consider to be a:

Mood stabilizer

Long-acting B2 agonists are indicated for:

Maintenance therapy for asthmatics

Means by which nerve impulses are conducted includes:

Electrical and chemical

The mechanism of action of Xanthines is:

unclear

Metaproterenol belongs to what subgroup?

short acting

Meter

Length

Micro

1/1,000,000

Milli

1/1000

mL

milliliter

The most common adverse effect associated with thrombolytic agents is:

Bleeding

The most common side effect of anticholinergic bronchodilators is

dry mouth

The most commonly used anticoagulant is:

Warfarin

Mucociliary slowing, bronchodilation, and increased heart rate all are a result of what?

anticholinergic agents

Mucus or mucociliary clearance can be abnormal in pulmonary diseases such as:

Bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis

The nebulizer used to aerosolize ribavitrin is:

SPAG

Nicotine is capable of stimulating both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomiccholinergic receptors.

True

Nicotine replacement agents are indicated to do what?

relieve symptoms of nicotine withdrawal

Nitorglycerin relieves chest pain by:

dilating coronary arteries

Nitrates can be administered by what routes?

Transdermal, oral, intravenous, sublingual

Nitric Oxide is a:

Pulmonary vasodilator

Nonsteroidal antiasthma drugs are

Controllers

Normal clearance of airway mucus can be alterd by changes in:

Respiratory rate

NPO

nothing by mouth

On administering a dose of atropine to your patient, which of the following effects would you not expect to see?

Broncial constriction

One cup is equivalent to how many mL of liquid?

240mL

Parasympatholytic

Agent blocking or inhibiting the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system

Parasympathomimetic

agent causing stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system

A patient complains of oral thrush and hoarseness since she has been using fluticasone by MDI. The physician asks you to make a suggestion to help her without discontinuing the drug. You suggest

Add a spacer and rinse the mouth after use

A patient is experiencing changes in heart rate and papillary response to light. What division of the nervous system is responsible for these changes?

Autonomic nervous system

Patients using ipratropium aerosols should be instructed to avoid allowing the aerosol to come in contact with what?

eyes

The peripheral nervous system consists of the following:

Autonomic nervous system and the Somatic nervous system

The Pharmacodynamic Phase describes:

What the drug does to the body

Pharmacologic treatment for narcolepsy includes:

Xyrem

The physical properties of mucus includes:

Adhesion,Cohesion, Elasticity, and Viscosity

A physician asked you to suggest an aerosolized antiinfective for a cystic fibrosis patient with chronic Pseumonas aeruginosa infection. What is the most appropriate medication?

Tobramycin

A physician orders 3 ml of 0.83% Albuterol. How many milligrams of drug would you administer?

2.5 mg

A physician orders that 12 mg of medication be deivered to your patient. If 30 mL of the solution contains 20 mg of active drug, how many milliliters will you need to administer?

18 mL

Pirbuterol belongs to what subgroup?

Short acting

Prior to mucomyst, you should always pre-treat with a bronchodilator to help prevent bronchospasms.

True

PRN

As needed

The product combining an inhaled steroid and a bronchodilator is

Advair

The prototype chronobiotic is:

Melatonin

Pulmozyme is the trade name for which mucoactive agent?

Dornase alfa

q4h

every 4 hours

qh

every hour

qid

four times daily

Racemic Epinephrine belongs to what subgroup?

Ultra short acting

Racemic epinephrine comes in what percent solution

2.25%

Reduced extracellular levels of which neurotransmitter can contribute to the symptoms of RLS:

Dopamine

Relaxation of smooth airway muscle in the presence of reversible airflow obstruction is a general indication for the use of :

Adrenergic bronchodilators

Results of a patients' pulmonary function test(PFT) show that the peak flow rate increased the most when she inhaled an aerosolized sympathomimetic agent and an aerosolized parasympatholytic agent. You would recommend that she be given what:

Confident MDI

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