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Carbon dioxide is

the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States.

Carbon-based fuels from lithospheric reservoirs

have been slowly sequestered over many millions of years.

Earth's climate

is changing as a result of natural and human processes.

Growing rice results in the release of ________ into the atmosphere.

methane

Hydroelectric power generation

is an alternative to fossil fuels that produces fewer greenhouse gases.

Hydrogen fuel cells, biodiesel, and long-term electric batteries are potential solutions to

reducing carbon emissions from cars and trucks.

In legislation, the precautionary principle applied to climate change, states that

lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used to postpone measures to prevent major environmental degradation.

In the wake of the U.S. failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol

cities and states are setting their own programs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Keeling's reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated

an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present.

carbon dioxide

Predominant greenhouse gas produced by burning fossil fuels

methane

Produced by microbes decomposing matter in landfills and as a metabolic byproduct of livestock.

By-product of feedlots, chemical manufacturing, and fertilizer use

nitrous oxide

water vapor

Most abundant greenhouse gas

sulfate aerosol

Compound that contributes to short-term atmospheric cooling.

ozone

Stratospheric greenhouse gas that absorbs the sun's incoming short‑wave radiation.

Milankovitch cycles

are changes in Earth's rotation and orbit around the sun that may trigger climate variation.

Of the following greenhouse gases, ________ concentrations have increased the most since 1750.

methane

Over ________% of the fuel you pump into your automobile does something other than move your vehicle down the road.

85.

The United States should enact laws slowing global climate change because

the US is a major producer of greenhouse gases.

Environmentalists advocate immediate intervention regarding global climate change because

they favor the precautionary principle.

One factor contributing to U.S. resistance to legal intervention regarding global climate change is

political influence of the petroleum, coal and automobile industries.

The Clear Skies Initiative may have helped somewhat with the problem of global climate change because it would have

required reduced nitrogen oxide emissions.

Recent evidence from polar ice core analysis shows that, until now, carbon dioxide levels have never exceeded ________ ppm in the last several hundred thousand years.

300

Recent research indicates that the variation in solar output

is less than any of the anthropogenic factors affecting climate change.

The 2009 Copenhagen Conference

failed to produce a treaty because the US failed to support it and China refused international monitoring for promised steep cuts.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies.

The Kyoto Protocol

was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990.

The US Senate has so far opposed emissions reductions on the grounds that

it might hurt the economy.

The largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the United States is ________, followed by ________.

electricity generation; transportation

The most recent analyses of polar ice cores have given us the ability to profile global climate change back as far as ________ years.

800,000

The use of public transportation is

one of the best options for decreasing the use of fossil fuels for transportation.

Tuvalu and the Maldives are in the international spotlight because they

may be the first nations to be completely flooded by rising sea levels.

A large area of the United States will see temperature rises of

4.5-5.5 °C.

According to the map, the area that will experience the greatest increase in temperatures is

the arctic and subarctic.

The region of the planet that will see the smallest rises in temperature is

oceans

Which of the following are market mechanisms for addressing climate change?

cap-and-trade and carbon offsets.

53

% of U.S. citizens live in coastal counties, thus vulnerable to rises in sea level.

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