# APHG Midterm Exam Review #1

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### cartography

1) The science of making maps is _____________________________ .

### scale

2) ________________ is the relationship between the length of an object on a map and that feature on the landscape.

### ratio/fraction

3) 1:24,000 is an example of what kind of ________________________ scale?

### 2000

4) If the scale of a map is 1:24,000, then 1 inch on the map represents ________ FEET on Earth's surface.

### small

5) A map of the world would have a _______________ scale? (small/large)

### map projection

6) A system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map is _________________________ .

### large

7) Distortion is especially severe on _____________-scale maps. (small/large)

### remote sensing

8) The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from another long-distance method is _____________________________________ .

### GIS (Geographical Information System)

9) A computer system that stores, organizes, retrieves, analyzes, and displays geographic data is ____________.

### toponym

10) The name given to a portion of Earth's surface is known as ____________________________.

### situation

11) __________________________ identifies a place by its location relative to other objects.

### site

12) _________________identifies a place by its unique physical characteristics.

### situation

13) New York City's ________ is on the Hudson River, approximately 100 miles northeast of Philadelphia and 100 miles southwest of Boston.

### The Equator!

14) A ship's position is given as 0 degrees latitude and 27 degrees west longitude. We can conclude from this information that the ship is located on _______________________________ .

### 0

15) Greenwich Mean Time is measured from __________ degrees latitude.

### 180

16) The International Date Line is measured approximately from ______________ degrees longitude.

### 1) Style of housing 2) Local Radio Stations 3) local restaurants/menus (WAFFLE HOUSE!)

17) List 3 things that establish the South as a vernacular region of the United States.

### spatial distribution

18) The arrangement of a phenomenon across Earth's surface is _______________________________.

### region

19) An area distinguished by one or more unique characteristics is a _________________.

### An urban area with office parks and shopping malls

20) Give an example of a functional region.

### venacular/functional

21) The division of the United States into nine regions by the Census Bureau is an example of a ____________.

### density

22) The frequency of something within a given unit of area is _____________________.

### concentration

23) The spread of something over a given study area is _____________________________.

### 27 ppl per sq. km

24) The population of the United States is approximately 270 million, and the land area is approximately 10 million square kilometers. The arithmetic density of the United States is approximately __________________.

### An area where culture traits are developed and the origin of specific diffused traits.

25) A hearth is _______________________________________________________ .

### Contagious, Stimulus, Hierarchical

26) List 3 types of expansion diffusion.

### Contagious

27) Diffusion of AIDS is an example of _________________________ diffusion?

### relocation

28) Economic development through international trade is an example of ________________________ diffusion?

### stimulus diffusion

29) If a group of people migrated from Papua New Guinea to North America and adopted Western cultural habits, this would be an example of _______________________________ .

### Religion/Clothing/Language

30) List the 3 elements of culture.

31) Elements of globalization of culture include ________________________________________.

### care, care

32) Culture means to _____________ about something and to take ______________ of something.

### environmental determinism

33) According to ________________________________, the physical environment causes social development.

### possibilism

34) The concept that the physical environment limits human actions, but that people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment is ____________________________ .

### less developed

35) One important feature of the world's population with the most significant future implications is that the most rapid growth is occurring in the ________________________________ countries.

### resources

36) Geographers define overpopulation as too many people compared to _________________________.

### East Asia

37) The world's largest concentration of people is located in which region?

### China

38) The most populous country in the world is _______________.

### China, India, UK, Nigeria, NE America

39) List the 5 major population clusters in the world.

### CITIES

40) Where do most people in Western Europe live? (cities/rural areas)

### India

41) The most populous country in the Southeast Asia region is __________________________ .

### Cold areas, drylands, highlands

42) List 3 types of places that humans avoid living in.

### Tibet and/or S. America

43) Relatively few people live at high elevations, but there are significant exceptions, especially in______________________________.

### arable land

44) Physiological density is the number of persons per area _________________________________.

### LOW

45) A country with a large amount of arable land and a small number of farmers will have a _____________ agricultural density. (low/high)

### arable

46) Land suited for agriculture is called ______________________ land.

### There is more arable land and a lower population

47) What does it mean if the physiological density of an area is much larger than the arithmetic density?

### Total Fertility Rate (2.1)

48) The average number of births women bear in their lifetimes is ____________________________.

### crude birth

49) To study fertility, geographers most frequently use the _______________________ rate

### doubling time

50) The world's population in 1995 was approximately 6 billion and was expected to reach 12 billion in approximately 45 years. The period of 45 years is known as ______________________________.

### doubling time

51) A decline in a country's crude birth rate would result in an increase in the country's ____________________.

### high

52) The crude death rate is typically ____________ in less developed countries. (low/high)

### less

53) Among world countries, the spread between between the highest and lowest crude death rates is ________ than the highest and lowest crude birth rates.

### Africa

54) Life expectancy is lowest on which continent?

### Crude Birth Rate

55) The total number of live births per year per 1,000 people in a society is the ________________________.

### Stage 2

56) The highest natural increase rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

### Stage 4

57) The lowest crude birth rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

### Stage 1

58) The highest crude death rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?

### Stage 2

59) Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15. In what stage of the demographic transition is this country?

### Country X

60) Country X has a crude birth rate of 40 and a crude death rate of 15, while Country Y has a crude birth rate of 20 and a crude death rate of 9. Which country has a higher natural increase rate?

Example: