Sculpture & Architecture

Created by kfranseen 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Ch11-12, Living with Art

Modeling

Additive method of sculpting; most direct

Terra Cotta

Clay

Sketch

A small clay sculpture that serves as a test piece

Armature

Rigid framework that provides support

Casting

Indirect method; involves a mold; usually metal, but can be any material that can be poured and then hardened

Lost-wax Method

Hollow casting; complicated - essentially, the bronze replaces the wax in the casting process; advantages - possibility of several identical sculptures, captures detail, resistant to weather

Direct Casting

Organic materials are encased in plaster; molten metal is poured in, vaporing the leaves, etc, instantly, and leaving a direct replica of the object in metal

Bronze

Most common material for casting; can be superheated to flow easily and freely; extremely durable

Puellae (Girls)

Bronze casting by Magdalena Abakanowicz

Gilding

Thin layer of gold

Patina

Colored incrustation on the metal

Mobiles

Sculptures that move; ex/ Alexander Calder

Southern Cross

Mobile sculpture by Alexander Calder

Carving

Subtractive method, direct; wood or stone; must be carved with the grain, some materials must be filed or ground down

Assembling

Constructing; additive method; the sculpture is built out of pieces, found objects

Sculpture in the round

Free standing, completely finished on all sides (one can walk around all sides of the figure)

Relief

Protrudes from the background

Bas-relief

"low relief" only raised a bit from the background

Haut-relief

"high relief" is raised more from the background, and some parts (like an arm) may be free from the background

Frontal pose

Still formal pose

Contrapposto

Informal pose; weight shift

Environmental sculpture

Sculptures that create their own environment, are meant for the outdoors, & incorporate the natural environment

Reconstructed Icicles, Dumfriesshire, 1995

Environmental sculptures; by Andy Goldsworthy

The Gates in New York's Central Park

Christo and Jeanne-Claude; Environmental sculpture

Serpent Mound

Environmental sculpture; artist unknown

Puppy

environmental sculpture; Jeff Koon; not meant to last forever; explores taste

Installation

An emphasis on space rather than objects or objects alone

Red Room

Installation by Louis Bourgeois

Architecture

Demands structural stability; must defy gravity and take into account the properties of the building materials

Shell system

Structural system; log cabin is an example; surface and support; prevailed until the 19th century

Skeleton and Skin System

Rigid framework with lightweight skin; largely a product of the Industrial Revolution

Weight

Light or heavy materials

Tensile strength

Ability to span distance w/o support

Load-bearing Construction

Simplest method of construction; stacking and piling of bricks or stones; thick at bottom and lightweight roof; allows for few, if any openings for windows; brick, stone, adobe, ice-blocks

Post-and-lintel Construction

Upright suports with horizontal cross members; stone or wood (great distances can't be spanned)

Hypostyle Halls

"Beneath columns;" a forest of columns holding up a high roof

Doric columns

no base

Ionic columns

volutes (Scroll-like spirals)

Corinthian columns

Acanthus leaves

Round Arch and Vault

Tension and compression; Roman and Romanesque architecture; a perfect semi-circle; provides larger open spaces than post-and-lintel; disadvantages - must be perfect semi-circle (height is limited by width), weight & darkness

Keystone

top, central wedge-shaped stone that holds the arch together

Barrel vault

The arch extended in depth; tunnel

Groin vault

Two barrel vaults intersected at right angles

Pointed Arch and Vault

Gothic architecture; weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so arches may be much taller

Rib vaults

A pointed vault with ribs that support the vault, allowing less material to be used elsewhere; windows now possible - stained glass often used; ex/Reims Cathedral

Reims Cathedral

Ex of rib vaults

Flying buttress

Channel weight of the vault out to the pier

Pier

Solid masonry that supplies support for the vault

Dome

Generally in the shape of a half-sphere; perfected by the Romans; ex/ Pantheon

Pantheon

Ex of Dome and oculus; Roman

Oculus

Round opening at the top of the dome

Rotunda

Round building

Drum

Wall supporting the dome: transition from a round dome to a round drum is straightforward, however, transition from a round dome to a square building requires a transitional structure

Pendentives

Curved triangular structures that support the dome

Corbelled Arch and Dome

Each course of stone extends slightly beyond the one below; appears to be just like a round arch, but is unable to distribute weight as effectively

Cast-Iron Construction

Skeleton-and-skin; provides a solid framework for building

Crystal Palace

Hyde Park, London; ex of Cast-iron construction

Balloon-Frame Construction

Domestic architecture (cannot support skyscrapers); lightweight framing with siding; 2 innovations - improved lumber-milling methods, mass-produced nails

Steel-Frame Construction

Skeleton-and-skin system; made skyscrapers possible (along with elevators); Louis Sullivan

Suspension

Bridges

Reinforced concrete

Concretes dates back to the Romans, but brittle, with low tensile strength - until this

Ferroconcrete

Iron rods are embedded in the concrete before it hardens, permanently bonding the two together

Geodesic Domes

R. Buckminster Fuller; based on the geometry of triangles and tetrahedrons; modular form of construction

Cantilever

A horizontal form supported at one end and jutting out into space at the other

Frank Lloyd Wright

Residential architecture; "Praire Houses" in Midwest, echo the flat landscape - usually one story and low to the ground; believed that houses should blend in with the environment and that the inside and the outside of the house should be harmonious

Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pennsylvania

Frank Lloyd Wright

Hagia Sophia

Istanbul

Taj Mahal

India

Sydney Opera House

Australia

Guggenheim Museum

Bilboa, Spain by Frank Gehry

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set