Chapter 12: Inheritance, Genes, and Chromosomes

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1. In Kölreuter's studies, reciprocal crosses
a. always gave identical results.
b. only involved heterozygous individuals.
c. supported the blending hypothesis of inheritance.
d. could be done only with homozygous individuals.
e. consisted of an F1 and an F2 generation.

a. always gave identical results.

2. During what year did Gregor Mendel orally present his genetics project?
a. 1565
b. 1665
c. 1765
d. 1865
e. 1965

d. 1865

3. Mendel's research was rediscovered in the published studies of
a. de Vries.
b. Correns.
c. von Tschermak.
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

d. All of the above

4. Which of the following is not a characteristic that makes an organism suitable for genetic studies?
a. A small number of chromosomes
b. A short generation time
c. Ease of cultivation
d. The ability to control crosses
e. The availability of a variation for traits

a. A small number of chromosomes

5. If Mendel had performed experiments on cattle rather than on peas, the patterns of inheritance would not have been easily detectable, because cattle
a. reproduce asexually.
b. have small numbers of offspring.
c. do not have observable phenotypes.
d. do not have genotypes.
e. do not have autosomes.

b. have small numbers of offspring.

6. A key factor that allowed Mendel to interpret the results of his breeding experiments was that
a. the varieties of peas he used were "true-breeding."
b. peas naturally self-pollinate.
c. peas can reproduce asexually.
d. pollination could be controlled.
e. Both a and d

e. Both a and d

7. If two strains of true-breeding plants that have different alleles for a certain character are crossed, their progeny are called
a. the P generation.
b. the F1 generation.
c. the F2 generation.
d. F1 crosses.
e. F2 progeny.

b. the F1 generation.

8. Which of the following methods was not used by Mendel in his study of the genetics of the garden pea?
a. Maintenance of true-breeding lines
b. Cross-pollination
c. Microscopy
d. Production of hybrid plants
e. Quantitative analysis of results

c. Microscopy

9. Mendel's crossing of spherical-seeded pea plants with wrinkled-seeded pea plants resulted in progeny that all had spherical seeds. This indicates that the wrinkled-seed trait is
a. codominant.
b. dominant.
c. recessive.
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

c. recessive.

Two different groups of imaginary schmoos live in geographically separated locations and rarely interbreed. On one occasion, a big-footed white schmoo does mate with a small-footed brown schmoo. Three offspring result: one big-footed brown schmoo and two small-footed brown schmoos.

10. Which statement about the inheritance of color in schmoos is most likely to be correct?
a. Brown is dominant to white.
b. White is dominant to brown.
c. White and brown are codominant.
d. Both a and c
e. This cannot be answered without more information.

a. Brown is dominant to white.

11. Which statement about the inheritance of footedness in schmoos is most likely to be correct?
a. Big is dominant to small.
b. Small is dominant to big.
c. Big and small are codominant.
d. Both a and c
e. This cannot be answered without more information.

e. This cannot be answered without more information.

12. If big feet (B) in schmoos is dominant to small feet (b), the genotype of the big-footed white parent schmoo with respect to the foot gene can
a. only be bb.
b. only be BB.
c. only be Bb.
d. either be bb or BB.
e. either be bb and Bb.

c. only be Bb.

13. If a trait not expressed in the F1 generation reappears in the F2 generation, the inheritance of the trait in question is an example of
a. codominance.
b. dominance and recessiveness.
c. incomplete dominance.
d. epistasis.
e. a sex-linked trait.

b. dominance and recessiveness.

14. Mendel concluded that each pea has two units for each character, and each gamete contains one unit. Mendel's "unit" is now referred to as a(n)
a. gene.
b. character.
c. allele.
d. transcription factor.
e. None of the above

a. gene.

15. The site on the chromosome occupied by a gene is called a(n)
a. allele.
b. region.
c. locus.
d. type.
e. phenotype.

c. locus.

16. Which of the following statements about Mendelian genetics is false?
a. Alternative forms of genes are called alleles.
b. A locus is a gene's location on its chromosome.
c. Only two alleles can exist for a given gene.
d. A genotype is a description of the alleles that represent an individual's genes.
e. Individuals with the same phenotype can have different genotypes.

c. Only two alleles can exist for a given gene.

17. A particular genetic cross in which the individual in question is crossed with an individual known to be homozygous for a recessive trait is referred to as a
a. parental cross.
b. dihybrid cross.
c. filial generation mating.
d. reciprocal cross.
e. test cross.

e. test cross.

18. The physical appearance of a character is called
a. the genotype.
b. the phenotype.
c. an allele.
d. a trait.
e. a gene.

b. the phenotype.

19. Different forms of a gene are called
a. traits.
b. phenotypes.
c. genotypes.
d. alleles.
e. None of the above

d. alleles.

20. In a(n) _______ cross, genes for two different characters separate.
a. monohybrid
b. dihybrid
c. trihybrid
d. F1
e. F2

b. dihybrid

21. In garden peas, the allele for tall plants is dominant over the allele for short plants. A true-breeding tall plant is crossed with a short plant, and one of their offspring is test crossed. Out of 20 offspring resulting from the test cross, about _______ should be tall.
a. 0
b. 5
c. 10
d. 15
e. 20

c. 10

22. The genotype of an organism that expresses a dominant trait can be determined by
a. crossing the organism with a homozygous dominant organism.
b. crossing the organism with a heterozygous dominant organism.
c. crossing the organism with a homozygous recessive organism.
d. observing the phenotype of the progeny from any cross.
e. observing the genotype of the progeny from any cross.

c. crossing the organism with a homozygous recessive organism.

23. In mice, short hair is dominant to long hair. If a short-haired individual is crossed with a long-haired individual and both long- and short-haired offspring result, one can conclude that
a. the short-haired individual is homozygous.
b. the short-haired individual is heterozygous.
c. the long-haired individual is homozygous.
d. the long-haired individual is heterozygous.
e. This cannot be answered without more information.

b. the short-haired individual is heterozygous.

24. Classical albinism results from a recessive allele. Which of the following is the expected ratio for the progeny when a normally pigmented male with an albino father has children with an albino woman?
a. 3⁄4 normal; 1⁄4 albino
b. 3⁄4 albino; 1⁄4 normal
c. 1⁄2 normal; 1⁄2 albino
d. All normal
e. All albino

c. 1⁄2 normal; 1⁄2 albino

25. It has been found that at a certain locus of the human genome, 200 different alleles exist in the population. Each person has at most _______ alleles.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 100
d. 200
e. 400

b. 2

26. Segregation of alleles occurs
a. during gamete formation.
b. at fertilization.
c. during mitosis.
d. during the random combination of gametes to produce the F2 generation.
e. only in monohybrid crosses.

a. during gamete formation.

27. Separation of the alleles of a single gene into different gametes is called
a. synapsis.
b. segregation.
c. independent assortment.
d. heterozygous separation.
e. recombination.

b. segregation.

28. A pea plant with red flowers is test crossed, and one-half of the resulting progeny have red flowers, while the other half has white flowers. Therefore, the genotype of the test-crossed parent was
a. RR.
b. Rr.
c. rr.
d. either RR or Rr.
e. This cannot be answered without more information.

b. Rr.

29. A dihybrid cross
a. results in a genotypic ratio of 2:1.
b. involves genes located on the sex chromosomes.
c. results in offspring of lower quality than that of the parents.
d. results in two different phenotypes in the F2 generation.
e. is a cross between identical double heterozygotes.

e. is a cross between identical double heterozygotes.

30. Mendel's dihybrid crosses
a. resulted in four different phenotypes.
b. produced recombinant phenotypes.
c. led to the formation of the law of independent assortment.
d. involved unlinked genes.
e. All of the above

e. All of the above

31. In humans, a widow's peak is caused by a dominant allele W, and a continuous hairline is caused by a recessive allele w. Short fingers are caused by a dominant allele S, and long fingers are caused by a recessive allele s. Suppose a woman with a continuous hairline and short fingers and a man with a widow's peak and long fingers have three children. One child has short fingers and a widow's peak, one has long fingers and a widow's peak, and one has long fingers and a continuous hairline. What are the genotypes of the parents?
a. Female wwSS; male WWss
b. Female wwSs; male Wwss
c. Female wwSs; male WWss
d. Female WwSs; male WwSs
e. None of the above

b. Female wwSs; male Wwss

32. In dogs, phenotype A (erect ears and barking while following a scent) is caused by dominant alleles; phenotype B (droopy ears and silent while following a scent) is caused by recessive alleles. A dog that is homozygous for both traits of phenotype A is mated to a dog with phenotype B. If the genes for the two traits are unlinked, which of the following is (are) the expected F1 phenotypic ratio(s)?
a. 9:3:3:1
b. 1:1
c. 16:0
d. 1:2:1
e. None of the above

c. 16:0

33. In cocker spaniels, black color (B) is dominant over red (b), and solid color (S) is dominant over spotted (s). If the genes are unlinked and the offspring of BBss and bbss individuals are mated with each other, what fraction of their offspring will be black and spotted?
a. 1⁄16
b. 9⁄16
c. 1⁄9
d. 3⁄16
e. 3⁄4

e. 3⁄4

34. One of the major contributions of Mendel to the study of genetics was
a. the use of statistics and probability to analyze data.
b. a complete description of the process of meiosis.
c. the understanding that phenotypes are affected by the environment.
d. the discovery that dominance is always complete.
e. the finding that heritable traits combine or blend together.

a. the use of statistics and probability to analyze data.

35. Mendel performed a cross between individuals heterozygous for three different traits: yellow versus green seeds (green is dominant), red versus white flowers (red is dominant), and green versus yellow pods (green is dominant). What fraction of the offspring would have been expected to have green seeds, red flowers, and green pods?
a. 27⁄64
b. 12⁄64
c. 9⁄64
d. 6⁄64
e. 3⁄64

a. 27⁄64

36. Genetic mutations are
a. rare.
b. stable.
c. inherited changes in DNA.
d. random.
e. All of the above

e. All of the above

37. Tall pea plants are crossed to short, and the progeny are medium height. The F1 plants are crossed together, but the progeny observed among the F2 have nine different size classes. This result is best explained by
a. the existence of pleiotropic alleles.
b. incomplete dominance.
c. codominance.
d. an increased number of phenotypes due to multiple alleles.
e. epistasis.

d. an increased number of phenotypes due to multiple alleles

38. In the garden peas used in Mendel's experiments, the spherical seed character (SS) is completely dominant over the wrinkled seed character (ss). If the characters for height were incompletely dominant, such that TT was tall, Tt was intermediate, and tt was short, what would have resulted from crossing a spherical-seeded, short (SStt) plant to a wrinkled-seeded, tall (ssTT) plant?
a. One-half would be smooth-seeded and intermediate height; one-half would be smooth-seeded and tall.
b. All the progeny would be smooth-seeded and tall.
c. All the progeny would be smooth-seeded and short.
d. All the progeny would be smooth-seeded and intermediate in height.
e. This cannot be answered without more information.

d. All the progeny would be smooth-seeded and intermediate in height.

39. In Netherlands dwarf rabbits, a gene showing intermediate inheritance produces three phenotypes. Rabbits that are homozygous for one allele are small rabbits; individuals homozygous for the other allele are deformed and die; heterozygous individuals are dwarf. If two dwarf rabbits are mated, what proportion of their surviving offspring should be dwarf?
a. 1⁄4
b. 1⁄3
c. 1⁄2
d. 2⁄3
e. 3⁄4

d. 2⁄3

40. In Mendel's experiments, if the allele for tall (T) plants was incompletely dominant over the allele for short (t) plants, what offspring would have resulted from crossing two Tt plants?
a. 1⁄4 tall; 1⁄2 intermediate height; 1⁄4 short
b. 1⁄2 tall; 1⁄4 intermediate height; 1⁄4 short
c. 1⁄4 tall; 1⁄4 intermediate height; 1⁄2 short
d. All tall offspring
e. All intermediate height offspring

a. 1⁄4 tall; 1⁄2 intermediate height; 1⁄4 short

41. If the same allele has two or more phenotypic effects, it is said to be
a. codominant.
b. a marker.
c. linked.
d. pleiotropic.
e. hemizygous.

d. pleiotropic.

42. The ABO blood groups in humans are determined by a multiple allelic system in which IA and IB are codominant and are dominant to iO. If an infant born to a type O mother also is type O, possible genotypes for the father are
a. O or A.
b. A or B.
c. O only.
d. O, A, or B.
e. impossible to determine

d. O, A, or B.

43. In the ABO blood type system,
a. A, B, and O are codominant.
b. A, B, and O are incompletely dominant.
c. A and B are codominant.
d. O is incompletely dominant to A and B.
e. A is dominant to B, and B is dominant to O.

c. A and B are codominant.

44. The genetic disease blue sclera is determined by an autosomal dominant allele. The eyes of individuals with this allele have bluish sclera. These same individuals may also suffer from fragile bones and deafness. This is an example of
a. incomplete dominance.
b. pleiotropy.
c. epistasis.
d. codominance.
e. linkage.

b. pleiotropy

45. A mutation at a single locus causes a change in many different characters. This an example of a(n) _______ effect.
a. polygene
b. epigenetic
c. cytoplasmic
d. multiple negativity
e. pleiotropic

e. pleiotropic

46. Epistasis refers to
a. a group of genes that are close together.
b. the equal interaction of two genes so that a new phenotype is produced.
c. the expression of two genes in the same individual.
d. the linear order of genes on a chromosome.
e. the expression of one gene masking the expression of another.

e. the expression of one gene masking the expression of another.

47. When a given trait is the result of multigene action, one of the genes may mask the expression of one or all other genes. This phenomenon is termed
a. epistasis.
b. epigenesis.
c. dominance.
d. incomplete dominance.
e. None of the above

a. epistasis.

48.-50. Agouti is a type of coat color pattern in mouse that cannot be expressed in albinos (white mice). A non-albino, agouti mouse that is heterozygous at the albino (A) and agouti (B) loci (AaBb) is mated to an albino mouse that is heterozygous at the agouti locus (aaBb). Non-albino mice without the dominant agouti allele (AAbb and Aabb) are black.

48. What percent of the progeny do you expect to be albino?
a. 0
b. 12.5
c. 37.5
d. 50
e. 100

d. 50

49. What percent of the progeny do you expect to be agouti?
a. 0
b. 12.5
c. 37.5
d. 50
e. 100

c. 37.5

50. What percent of the progeny do you expect to be black?
a. 0
b. 12.5
c. 37.5
d. 50
e. 100

b. 12.5

51. A dominant allele K is necessary for normal hearing. A dominant allele M on a different locus results in deafness no matter which other alleles are present. If a kkMm individual is crossed with a Kkmm individual, _______ percent of the offspring will be deaf.
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75

d. 75

52. The blue sclera allele has 90 percent penetrance for producing blue sclera, 60 percent penetrance for fragile bones, and 40 percent penetrance for deafness. If these probabilities of penetrance are independent, _______ percent of individuals with the blue sclera allele will have deafness, blue sclera, and fragile bones.
a. 22
b. 40
c. 60
d. 90
e. None of the above

a. 22

53. The complete phenotype of an organism is dependent on
a. genotype.
b. penetrance.
c. expressivity.
d. polygenes.
e. All of the above

e. All of the above

54. Despite the law of independent assortment, when two loci are on the same chromosome, the phenotypes of the progeny sometimes do not fit the predicted phenotypes due to
a. translocation.
b. inversions.
c. chromatid affinities.
d. linkage.
e. reciprocal chromosomal exchanges.

d. linkage.

55. If Mendel's crosses between spherical-seeded tall plants and wrinkled-seeded short plants had produced many more than 1⁄16 wrinkled-seeded short plants in the F2 generation, he might have concluded that
a. the spherical seed and tall traits are linked.
b. the wrinkled seed and short traits are unlinked.
c. all traits in peas assort independently.
d. all traits in peas are linked.
e. None of the above

a. the spherical seed and tall traits are linked.

56. A linkage group corresponds to
a. a group of genes on different chromosomes.
b. the linear order of centromeres on a chromosome.
c. the length of a chromosome.
d. a group of genes on the same chromosome.
e. None of the above

d. a group of genes on the same chromosome.

57. When a dihybrid black, straight-winged fly is crossed to a double-recessive brown, curly-winged fly, the frequency at which black curly-winged and brown straight-winged flies are seen in the progeny is called the _______ frequency.
a. mutation
b. mitotic
c. meiotic
d. allele
e. recombinant

e. recombinant

58. In tomatoes, tall is dominant to short, and smooth fruits are dominant to hairy fruits. A plant homozygous for both dominant traits is crossed with a plant homozygous for both recessive traits. The F1 progeny are tested and crossed with the following results: 78 tall, smooth fruits; 82 dwarf, hairy fruits; 22 tall, hairy fruits; and 18 dwarf, smooth fruits. These data indicate that the genes are
a. on different chromosomes.
b. linked, but do not cross over.
c. linked and show 10 percent recombination.
d. linked and show 20 percent recombination.
e. linked and show 40 percent recombination

d. linked and show 20 percent recombination.

59. An organism that produces either male gametes or female gametes, but not both, is called
a. monoecious.
b. dioecious.
c. heterozygous.
d. homozygous.
e. parthenogenic.

b. dioecious.

60. In guppies, fan tail is dominant to flesh tail, and rainbow color is dominant to pink. F1 female guppies are crossed with flesh-tailed, pink-colored males, and the following progeny are observed: 401 fan-tailed, pink-colored; 399 flesh-tailed, rainbow-colored; 98 flesh-tailed, pink-colored; and 102 fan-tailed, rainbow-colored guppies. Assuming that the F1 female guppies have both dominant alleles on one chromosome, the map distance between these two genes is
a. 80 cM.
b. 25 cM.
c. 0.8 cM.
d. 20 cM.
e. None of the above

a. 80 cM.

61 Which of the following observations support the idea that the gene controlling maleness is located on the Y chromosome?
a. XO individuals are usually sterile, normal intelligence, female, with slight physical abnormalities.
b. XXY individuals are sterile males with long limbs.
c. XXX individuals are normal females.
d, Some men are XX but have a small piece of the Y attached to another chromosome.
e. All of the above are observations suggesting that the gene controlling maleness is on the Y chromosomes.

e. All of the above are observations suggesting that the gene controlling maleness is on the Y chromosomes.

62. It is predictable that half of the human babies born will be male and half will be female because
a. of the segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis.
b. of the segregation of the X chromosomes during female meiosis.
c. all eggs contain an X chromosome.
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c

a. of the segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis.

63. How many autosomes do humans have?
a. 23 pairs
b. 22 pairs
c. 1 pair
d. 45
e. 16

b. 22 pairs

64. When reciprocal crosses produce identical results, the trait is
a. sex-linked.
b. not sex-linked.
c. not autosomally inherited.
d. Both a and c
e. Both b and c

b. not sex-linked.

65. A human male carrying an allele for a trait on the X chromosome is
a. heterozygous.
b. homozygous.
c. hemizygous.
d. monozygous.
e. holozygous.

c. hemizygous.

66. White eyes is a recessive sex-linked trait in fruit flies. If a white-eyed female fruit fly is mated to a red-eyed male, their offspring should be
a. 50 percent red-eyed and 50 percent white-eyed for both sexes.
b. all white-eyed for both sexes.
c. all white-eyed males and all red-eyed females.
d. all white-eyed females and all red-eyed males.
e. 50 percent red-eyed males and 50 percent white-eyed males and all red-eyed females.

c. all white-eyed males and all red-eyed females.

67. Sex in humans is determined by
a. a gene called SRY found on the Y chromosome.
b. a gene called SRY found on the X chromosome.
c. a gene called SDG found on an autosomal chromosome.
d. the simple presence or absence of a Y chromosome.
e. a gene called SDG found on the Y chromosome.

a. a gene called SRY found on the Y chromosome.

68.-69. Cleft chin is an X-linked dominant trait. Assume that a man with a cleft chin marries a woman with a round chin.

68. What percent of their female progeny will show the cleft chin trait?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75
e. 100

e. 100

69. What percent of their male progeny will show the cleft chin trait?
a. 0
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75
e. 100

a. 0

70. Very few genes have been located on the Y chromosomes. Y-linked genes include a gene called testis-specific protein Y. A male with this gene will
a. usually pass it to his sons, but occasionally also to a daughter.
b. only pass the gene to his sons.
c. only pass the gene to his daughters.
d. only pass the gene to his grandsons.
e. pass the gene to all of his children if the mother is a carrier.

b. only pass the gene to his sons.

71. Alleles for genes located on mitochondrial DNA are said to be maternally inherited. What is the reason for this pattern of inheritance?
a. The egg and sperm contribute equal numbers of cytoplasmic organelles to the zygote.
b. The egg contributes virtually all of the cytoplasmic organelles to the zygote.
c. Half of the nuclear chromosomes in the zygote come from the father.
d. Half of the nuclear chromosomes in the zygote come from the mother.
e. All of the nuclear chromosomes in the zygote come from the mother.

b. The egg contributes virtually all of the cytoplasmic organelles to the zygote.

72. Which of the following organelles contain DNA?
a. Nucleus
b. Chloroplast
c. Mitochondria
d. Ribosome
e. a, b, and c

e. a, b, and c

73. The approximate total number of genes in the human nuclear genome is closest to
a. 24.
b. 240.
c. 2,400.
d. 24,000.
e. 240,000.

d. 24,000.

74. Humans have _______ genes in their mitochondria.
a. 300
b. 3,000
c. 30,000
d. 300,000
e. 37

e. 37

75. Which of the following is a true statement?
a. The bacterial chromosome is the same size as a eukaryotic chromosome.
b. The bacterial chromosome contains thousands of linked genes.
c. Genetic recombination occurs in bacteria through a conjugation tube.
d. The bacterial chromosome is a highly packed linear strand of DNA.
e. Prokaryotes can exchange genes in a sexual process called epistasis.

c. Genetic recombination occurs in bacteria through a conjugation tube.

76. What are plasmids?
a. Small circular chromosomes containing a small number of genes.
b. Small segments of genes that replicate independently of the main chromosome of the cell.
c. Small pieces of DNA used to transfer genes between bacteria
d. Moveable pieces of DNA found in bacteria
e. All of the above

e. All of the above

77. Plasmids are used to
a. break down hydrocarbons.
b. clean up oil spills.
c. produce clones.
d. insert new genetic information into cells.
e. All of the above

d. insert new genetic information into cells.

1. A(n) _______ trait is one that can be passed from one generation to another.

heritable

2. A(n) _______ is an observable feature, such as flower color; a(n) _______ is a particular form of a character, such as a white flower.

character; trait

3. A cross between two parents that differs by a single trait is a(n) _______ cross.

monohybrid

4. When a cross is made and a trait disappears in the F1 generation, only to reappear in the F2, the trait is probably _______.

recessive

5. The totality of all the genes of an organism is known as the organism's _______.

genome

6. The physical appearance of a character is the _______, whereas the genetic constitution is the _______.

phenotype; genotype

7. A(n) _______ is a portion of DNA that resides at a particular locus or site on a chromosome and encodes a particular function.

gene

8. The region of the chromosome occupied by a gene is called the _______.

locus

9. A cross between two heterozygous parents that differs by two independent traits is a(n) _______ cross.

dihybrid

10. To determine the overall probability of independent events, one should _______ the probabilities of the individual events.

multiply

11. To determine the probability of an event that can occur in two or more different ways, one should _______ the individual probabilities.

add

12. Mendel's laws of inheritance can be applied to human genetics through the study of _______.

pedigrees

13. One particular allele of a gene may be defined as _______, or standard, because it is present in most individuals and gives rise to an expected trait, or phenotype.

wild type

14. The AB phenotype found in individuals with an IAIB genotype is an example of _______.

codominance

15. When the expression of one gene depends on the expression of another gene, the genes demonstrate _______.

epistasis

16. The hypothesis that hybrid vigor, or heterosis, results from the superiority of the heterozygote in comparison to either homozygote is known as _______.

overdominance

17. When many genes contribute to the phenotype, variation is said to be continuous, or _______.

quantitative

18. Quantitative variation is the result of the interaction of _______ and _______.

genes; environment

19. Genes at different loci on the same chromosome can separate and recombine to form _______.

recombinant chromosomes

20. Recombination is most likely to occur between two loci that are _______.

far apart

21. Geneticists make use of _______ frequencies to create genetic maps that show the arrangement of genes on a chromosome.

recombinant

22. A female that is heterozygous for a recessive sex-linked trait is called a _______.

carrier

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