Developmental psychology post exam

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Developmental science is a field of study devoted

proving contemporary theories of development.

understanding abnormal development in children and adolescents.

understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan.

identifying genetic contributions to disease and illness.

Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because theyQuestion 2 options:

ensure proper use of research procedures.

illustrate the ultimate truth regarding human behavior.

provide organizing frameworks for our

do not require scientific verification

The lifespan perspective on development assumes

development is static and stable.

events that occur during infancy and early childhood have the strongest impact on the life course.

development is affected by a blend of biological, psychological, and social forces.

individual development is continuous, rather than discontinuous.

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution emphasized ______________ and _______________.

the normative approach; survival of the fittest

noble savages; physical maturation

natural selection; survival of the fittest

tabula rasa; natural selection

Theorists who believe that change is possible and even likely if new experiences support it emphasizeQuestion

stages.

plasticity.

nature.

stability.

Behaviorism focuses onQuestion

unconscious impulses and drives.

stimuli and responses.

natural selection and survival of the fittest.

clinical case studies.

According to ___________ theory, children learn primarily through modeling

reinforcement

operant conditioning

social learning

classical conditioning

The information-processing approach views the mind as

symbol-manipulating system through which information flows.

socially mediated process.

collection of stimuli and responses.

system of genetically programmed behaviors.

According to ___________ theory, children learn primarily through modeling

reinforcement

operant conditioning

social learning

classical conditioning

The information-processing approach views the mind as

symbol-manipulating system through which information flows.

socially mediated process.

collection of stimuli and responses.

system of genetically programmed behaviors.

Lev Vygotsky's theory focuses onQuestion

critical periods of human development.

children's capacity to shape their own development.

how behavior patterns promote survival.

how culture is transmitted to the next generation.

______________ is the researcher best known for his cognitive-developmental theory

Abraham Maslow

Sigmund Freud

Erik Erikson

Jean Piaget

Taylor's 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY.

is male.

cannot be a fraternal twin.

is female.

cannot be an identical twin.

Accumulating evidence reveals that the relationship between heredity and the environment

a one-way street.

unidirectional.

bidirectional.

primarily negative.

Environmental factors that may produce birth defects are called

blastocysts

allergens

teratogens

toxinogens

___________ is a sudden but permanent change in a segment in DNA that can create __________.

Mutation; genetic abnormalities

Meiosis; X-linked disorders

Mitosis, fragile X syndrome

Genomic imprinting; mutation

Human development takes place within a complex, many-layered environment. The first and foremost context for development is ______?

genetics

the family

socioeconomic status

subcultures

Mary Ainsworth is known for her research regarding the development of an experiment that assessed the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age. The name of this experiment is called?

the Secure Base test

the Attachment Q-Sort

the Strange Situation

the Internal Working Model test

Which parenting style seems to promote high-achieving children?

authoritarian

permissive

authoritative

uninvolved

The placentaQuestion

forms in the second trimester of pregnancy.

encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid.

contains one large vein that delivers nutrients to the embryo.

delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism.

During the embryonic period of pregnancy, teratogensQuestion

cause the most serious damage to the developing organism.

usually affect the growth of sensory organs, such as the eyes and ears.

usually cause only minor damage to the developing organism.

have no impact on the developing organism.

During the second stage of labor,

contractions of the uterus begin gradually and become more frequent and powerful.

the baby is born.

the cervix widens and thins to nothing.

the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus and is delivered

Mark's Apgar ratings were 7 and 9.

was in good physical condition at birth and five minutes afterwards.

needed assistance in establishing breathing at first, but quickly recovered.

was in serious danger and received emergency medical attention.

was in danger at birth, but was in good physical condition within five minutes.

refers to control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, whereas ___________ has to do with smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping.

Fine-motor development; gross-motor development

Sensorimotor development; gross-motor development

Lateralization; dynamic systems

Gross-motor development; fine-motor development

Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Luigi has begun to masterQuestion

deferred imitation.

object permanence.

make-believe play.

reflexive schemes.

Generally, fathers ___________ than mothers do

interact and play differently with babies

more often provide toys and talk to infants

more often play conventional games like peekaboo

devote more time to physical care

Children who are unable to regulate their emotionsQuestion

display less prosocial behavior and sympathetic concern.

are likely to help others in distress.

tend to avoid peers in distress.

exhibit more prosocial behavior.

Most children classified by Thomas and Chess' research on temperament fell into the ____________ category

uninhibited

easy

difficult

slow-to-warm-up

In Sternberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancingQuestion

linguistic, emotional, and practical intelligences.

spatial, kinesthetic, and interpersonal intelligences.

creative, intrapersonal, and emotional intelligences.

analytical, creative, and practical intelligences.

The dropout rate in the U.S. is higher among __________ and is particularly high among

girls than boys; lower-SES Caucasians

boys than girls; higher-SES ethnic minorities

boys than girls; lower-SES ethnic minorities

girls than boys; lower-SES ethnic minorities

Seventeen-year-old Saffron strives to rely on herself and not her parents for decision making. Saffron is

moral self-relevance.

identity foreclosure.

autonomy.

identity diffusion.

The upper biological limit of motor capacity is reached in theQuestion

last part of middle childhood.

first part of adolescence.

first part of early adulthood.

last part of middle adulthood.

Jessica and Rick are married. They both try to balance the time and energy they devote to their occupations, their children, and their relationship. They have a(n) __________ marriage

traditional

patriarchal

egalitarian

matriarchal

Russell and Janine are involved in a sexually intimate relationship and share an apartment. Their relationship is referred to asQuestion

noncommitted.

traditional.

cohabitation.

informal.

Studies report ___________ in midlife

an increase in masculine traits in men

a decrease of masculine traits in women

that both men and women become more androgynous

an increase of feminine traits in women

Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the _________ generation

sandwich

me

kinkeeper

squeezed

___________ is the most common form of dementia

Cerebrovascular dementia

Parkinson's disease

Alzheimer's disease

Subcortical dementia

Mental abilities that decline at an earlier age typically depend on __________ intelligence, while those that are sustained longer in life depend on __________ intelligence

crystallized; fluid

fluid; crystallized

cognitive; emotional

emotional; cognitive

Elders' housing preferences reflect a strong desire forQuestion

moving near children.

relocation.

living in a temperate climate.

aging in place.

______________ is usually the first consideration in the decision to retire

Spousal encouragement

Affordability of retirement

Decline in job satisfaction

Decline in worker health

Which of the following is an essential ingredient of a "good death

offering the dying person care, affection, and companionship

hiding the truth about the diagnosis from the dying person

avoiding discussions about the past

giving the dying person time alone

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