Intro to Sociology Final

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Based on the model of Kahl and Gilbert, which social class is most shaped by education?

upper middle class

Bruce owns about 3,000 acres of prime farm land, is one of the wealthiest men in the county, and enjoys a great deal of prestige in his community. How would sociologists describe Bruce's status?

Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the dimensions of wealth and prestige.

During the Great Depression thousdans of people found themselves in a lower social class. What type of social mobility did this event illustrate?

structural mobility

From a Marxist orientation, how many social classes are there?

two

How did Karl Marx define social class?

Social class is solely based on one's relationship to the means of production.

How many classes exist in Erik Wright's modified Marxian model of social class?

four

In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Critics of this new legislation called it an attack on the ppor and that it has not transformed welfare recipients into self-supporting and hard-wroking citizens. What evidence do these supporters use in making this point?

The number of people pm welfare has significantly decreased.

Inaddition to the criteria of wealth, power, and prestige, what other component did Kahl and Gilbert include in their six-tier moel of class in capitalist countries?

education

In the United States, what occupation holds the greatest prestige?

physician

Jocko has a high school diploma and owns a corporation that nets over a million dollars a year. In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Jocko based on middle-class standards?

Jocko is status inconsistent because his level of education, which is not consistent with his rank in property and power.

Paul and Charlene attend a church where there is a healthy dose of loud "amens", loud and rhythmic music, and expressive homilies by the minister. To what social class do Paul and Charlene probably belong?

the lower middle class

Using the concept of a child's block equal to $500 of income, what does the author use to illustrate the height of U.S. families with the highest income?

Mount Everest

What are the two subdivisions of the capitalist class?

"old" money and "new" money

What is it called when the same numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change?

exchange mobility

What is the race of most poor people living in the United States?

white

What is the trend in U.S. society whereby poor families have become increasingly headed by women?

the feminization of poverty

What is the upward or downward movement in social class to family members from one generation to the next?

intergenerational mobility

What phrase best describes how working class people think about economic and social issues?

The working class is more liberal on economic issues and more conservative on social issues.

What term did C. Wright Mills coin to refer to the collection of people who make the big decisions in U.S. society?

power elite

What term do sociologists use to refer to a large group of people who rank closely together in property, power, and prestige?

social class

Which group of theorists believes the purpose of the welfare system is to maintain a reserve labor force?

conflict theorists

Which explanation of poverty of sociologists generally support?

Sociologists support the social structure over characteristics of the individual as an explanation of poverty

What term did Erik Wright use to describe the condition when a person is a member of more than one class at the same time?

contradictory class locations

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town and now lives below the poverty line. How would a sociologist describe John's situation?

John is poor because of a change in the social structure.

Which of the following religions draws its membership heavily from the working poor and underclass?

Baptist

Chris, a mortgage loan manager, works for a bank that targets minorities for high-risk loans because the bank can charge higher interest rates. The action of the bank is best described as_________?

institutional discrimination

From which country do Americans of Europe descent most often trace their ancestry?

Germany

From which nation do the greatest number of Latinos in the United States trace their heritage?

Mexico

In 1955, who was the African American woman whose arrest for refusing to stand on a public bus so white poeple could sit helped inspire the civil rights movement?

Rosa Parks

In which ethnic group is it most likely that children will grow up with parents who are married to each other?

Asian American

People who are African American and Hispanic are often turned down for loans, even though their credit histories are similar to white applicants. What do sociologists call this form of treatment?

institutional discrimination

Prejudice describes _________ while discrimination described__________.

attitudes; actions

Race is to biology as ___________ is to cultural heritage.

ethnicity

Rosa is a young, female Puerto Rican; Leon is a young male African American; Yoko is a young, female Japanese American; and Joseph is a young, male Native American. Which individual is most likely to intermarry?

Yoko

Sam, a bartender who served in the Vietnam War, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A Sociologically, how would one describe Sam's actions?

Sam is guilty of prejudice and discrimination

Slavery in the United States was an example of which pattern of intergroup relations?

internal colonialism

Tiger Woods invented the term "Cablinasian" to describe his racial identity. What identities are included in being a "Cablinasian?"

Asian, Indian, Black, Caucasian

What do sociologists call a tendency for people to be blind to the messages that labels convey?

selective perception

What is the attempted destruction of a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity?

genocide

What is the intergroupe strategy that involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them?

segregation

What is the major difference between how sociologists and psychologists attempt to understand prejudice?

Psychologists examine conditions inside the individual, and sociologists examine conditions outside the individual.

What is the method of intergroup relations that allows the minority group to adopt the dominant group's patterns in their own way and at their own speed?

permissible assimilation

Which ethnic group does the text refer to as the "invisible minority"?

Native Americans

Who are Chicanos?

Americans from Mexico

Who are the Amercian volunteers concerned with illegal immigration who unofficially patrol the Mexico-United States border?

the Minutemen

Mickey takes great pride in being Irish. He wears a button that says "Kiss Me...I'm Irish," flies the Irish flag outside his home, cooks traditional Irish dishes at home, and participates in the St. Patrick Day parade every year. What is Mickey doing as it relates to race and ethnicity?

Mickey is involved in ethnic work.

Sociologists refer to those members of society with the greater power and privilege (the ones who do the discriminating) as the _____________.

dominant group

What is the variable that most distinguishes one race from another?

physical characteristics

What term was used to describe the Serb massacre of Muslims in Bosnia?

ethnic cleansing

Who was the sociologist who defined minority groups as people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?

Louis Wirth

Because the firs of the baby boom generation are now in their 60s, how will this translate into how members of society view the elderly and why?

The image of the elderly will improve because of their vast numbers and economic clout.

How do symbolic interactionists believe that the social value of the elderly in America changed when the economy shifted from being based on agriculture to industry?

It decreased

How much is spent to support the costs of Social Security and Medicare in the U.S.?

one of every four tax dollars

Leticia has worked for twenty years in the public relations department of a large firm and has been the vice-president for the past ten years. It is unlikely she will ever be promoted to the top executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects and is quite capable. What sociological concept does this scenario illustrate?

the "glass ceiling"

Most people in this sociology class were born at roughly the same time and will pass through the life course together. In view of this, what term would sociologists use to describe them?

age cohort

Research of hospital records revealed that women were more likely than men to die from coronary bypass surgery. When researchers looked for an answer, what did they discover was the most likely cause of these differing rates in death from this surgery?

unintentinal sexual discrimination

The fact that 95 percent of construction trade degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates what concept?

gender tracking

The first wave of the women's movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the conservative branch?

Winning the right to vote for women.

The life expextancy of men born in the year 2012 is approximately ___________ and the life expectancy of women born that year is approximately ___________.

76; 81

The rate of poverty among the elderly ________ since the 1960s

has declined

What is the current human life span, based on the age reached by a French woman who died in 1997?

122

What evidence do sociologists emphasize in their response to biologists that genetics cannot be the principal factor in determining human behavior?

Behavior among men and women would be more universal around the world.

What is an unequal access to power, property, and prestige based on one's sex?

gender stratification

What is the dominant sociological position to explain gender-based behavior?

Social factors are the reason for human behavior

What is the term used to described the number of years people can plan on living?

life expectancy

What were the goals of the second wave of the women's movement that began in the 1960s?

The goals are broad-ranging, from raising womens pay to changing policies on violence against women.

Which American president had the greatest influence in developing the Social Security program?

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Which of the following is the best example of gender stratification?

Women are not permitted to vote, own property, or testify in court in some societies

Which theory of aging equates happiness in old age to the amount and quality of program participation the elderly engage in?

activity theory

Which theory of aging suggests people adjust to old age by maintaining ties with their past?

continuity theory

Which theory suggests society would be disrupted if the elderly left their positions only when they died or became incompetent?

disengagement theory

Who was the first woman to serve as the Speaker or the House of Representatives?

Nancy Pelosi

Why are age and sex considered master statuses?

They cut across all aspects of social life

Why are women classified as a minority group?

Women are discriminated against based on physical or cultural characteristics.

What term is used to described the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted?

feminism

According to functionalists, the family is ______ because it fulfills six needs that are basic to the survival of every society.

universal

Adults living together in a sexual relationship without being married is known as?

cohabitation

Based upon an objective analysis of the data available on divorce in the United States presented in the text, which of the following statements is true?

Comparing the number of divorces in a given year to the total number of married couples yields a divorce rate of about two percent.

For both single mothers and married couples, what is the most common source of child care for mothers who work outside the home?

organized child care facilities

Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise occupy the same apartment, share routine chores such as cooking, cleaning, and laundry, and each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs. Which term most applies to the relationship between Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise?

household

John and Diane proudly consider themselves to be DINKS. What is the distinguishing feature of DINKS?

They are a married couple, both are working, and they have no kids by choice.

Of the following racial groups, which one is most likely to have a family headed by a married couple?

Asian Americans

Regina lives in a society in which children are related to their father's relatvies but not their mother's relatives. What type of descent system does this illustrate?

patrilineal

Sociologically, which of the following is the most accurate definition of "marriage"?

It is a group's approved mating arrangements

Sylvia legally has three husbands--Ryan, Matthew, and Frank. In view of this, which assessment most accurately applies to Sylvia?

Sylvia is living in a society that practices polyandry

Today's average first-time bride and groom are ______ than at any other time in U.S. history.

older

What do functionalists view as the purpose of the incest taboo?

It facilitates the socialization of children and it avoids role confusion

What did sociologist Murray Straus conclude based on his research on battering in marital relationships?

Husbands and wives are about equally likely to attack one another

What family member did sociologist Diana Russell discover to be the most common incest offender?

uncles

What is the primary source of strain in the typical one-parent family?

poverty

What state in the U.S. initially legalized same-sex marriages but then voters overturned this action with a ballot initiative called Proposition 8, which limits marriage to a man and a woman?

California

What term describes a family in which grandparents, parents, children, and grandchildren live under one roof?

the extended family

What term describes a society in which men have more than one wife?

polygynous

Which of the following statements is most true of love and courtship?

Romantic love is the concept of people being sexually attracted to one another and idealizing each other.

Which of the following trends is least likely to occur?

Births to single women are likely to decrease

Which perspective is most aligned with the belief that family provides to society economic production, socialization of children, care of the sick and aged, and reproduction?

the functionalist perspective

Which term describes a family where at least one member of the marrying couple brings children into it from a previous union or other marriage?

blended family

Zachary's parents were divorced three years ago. During the first year after the divorce, Zachary's father visited him every week. The Zachary's father remarried and fathered another child. Now he rarely visits Zachary. What is this scenario called?

serial fatherhood

According to some researchers, among which racial group does the husband-father play the strongest role in the family?

Latinos

What are boomerang children?

children who strike out on their own but then find the cost and responsibility too great and return home

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