Chapter 8 Diseases of the Human Body

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Integumentary system anatomy and physiology review:

is composed of the skin; its accessory structures, such as the hair and glands; and the subcutaneous tissue below the skin.

Keratin

gives skin flexibility, creates a seal that prevents dehydration, forms a protective barrier.

Melanin

a pigment that gives the skin its color.

Reconstructive skin procedures

are necessary part of treatment and recovery for a number of disorders affecting the skin.

Macule

a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter, Freckle, flat mole, hyper pigmentation.

Papule

A solid elevation lesion, , Small (less than 1 cm in diameter), solid elevation of the skin (pimples). Nevus, warts, pimples.

Nodule

A palpable solid lesion up to 1 cm in diameter found in soft tissue; it can occur above, level with, or beneath the skin surface. Benign, or malignant tumor.

Wheal

hive,, a raised reddish lesion that often changes size and shape and extends into adjacent areas; usually associated with an allergen.

Vesicle and bulla

Elevated lesion that contains fluid, a bulla is a vesicle > 0.5 cm
Blister, herpes zoster, second degree burn; 2 degree burn.

Pustula

Elevated lesion containing pus that may be sterile or contaminated with bacteria; small abscess on the skin; Acne pustular, psoriasis.

Scale

Excessive dry exfoliation shed from upper layers of the skin; Psoriasis, ichthyosis.

Cyst

Elevated, encapsulated mass of dermis or subcutaneous layers, solid or fluid filled, Sabeceous cyst.

Psoriasis

is a chronic, noninfectious, inflammatory skin diseases market by the appearance of discrete pink or red lesions surmounted by a characteristics silvery scaling . Affects about 7.7 million Americans.

Fissure

Small crack-like sore or break exposing the dermis; usually res; Athlete's foot, celosias.

Ulcer

Loss of epidermis, dermis within a distinct border; Pressure sore, basal cell carcinoma.

Urticaria ( Hives)

is an episodic inflammatory reaction of the capillaries beneath a localized area of the skin. Frequently results following ingestion of certain foods.

Acne Vulgaris

is a very common inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles that affects 60% to 70% Americans at some time in their lives.

Rosacea

is a chronic, inflammatory condition that causes erythema, flushing or redness, and formation of red pustules on the face.

Keratosis Pilaris

is a common skin disorder that appears as painless, skin-colored bumps that may redden and form rough patches of skin. Occurs from hyperkertinization of the stratum corneum.

Alopecia Areata

is the absence or loss of hair, especially on the head. Two types are 1) scarring alopecia, where there is fibrosis, inflammation, and loss of hair follicles, and 2) nonscarring alopecia, where the hair shafts are gone but the hair follicles are preserved, making this type of olopecia reversible.

Furuncles or boil

is an abscess involving the entire hair follicle and adjacent subcutaneous tissue.

Carbuncles

consists of several furuncles developing in adjoining hair follicles with multiple drainage sinuses.

Pediculosis ( piojos)

is a skin infestation with lice, a parasitic insect affecting several millions of individuals each year.

Decubitus Ulcers

is a localized area of dead skin and subcutaneous tissue.

1) Corn and 2) Calluses

1) are horny indurations, or hardened tissue, and thickenings of the stratum corneum, the outermost or horny layer of the epidermis. 2) are localized hyperplasia (increased growth) of the stratum corneum. Ussually appear on areas of the body that receive repeated trauma, especially the feet.

Dermatophytoses

is a chronic, superficial fungal infection. can occurs in the scalp(tinea capitis), body (tinea corporis), nails (tinea unguium), feet (tines pedis), or groin (tinea cruris).

Scabies

is an age-old skin infection that is the result of infestation by the itch mite.

Impetigo

is a contagious superficial skin infection marked by a vesicle (a small, fluid-filled blister) or a bulla ( a large, fluid-filled blister) that becomes pustular,ruptures, and forms a yellow crust.

Warts (verrucae)

are benign, circumscribed, elevated skin lesions resulting from hypertrophy of the epidermis.exposed surfaces of the skin. There are five types of warts.;Common, Plantar, Flat, Filiform, Periungual warts.

Vitiligo

is a disorder in which the melanocytes, pigment-producing cells of the skin, are destroyed or cease producing melanin.

Scleroderma

also called systemic sclerosis, is a progressive, chronic, connective tissue disease characterized by diffuse fibrosis of the skin and internal organs.

Seborrheic Dermatitis

is a chronic functional disease of the sebaceous glands marked by an increase in the amount and often alteration in the quality of the sebaceous secretion.

Contact Dermatitis

is any acute skin inflammation caused by the direct action of various irritants on the surface of the skin or by contact with a substance ti which an individuals is allergic or sensitive.

Latex Allergy

is identified specifically here because so many health-care professionals are faced with this immune reaction.

Atopix Dermatitis (eczema)

is an inflammation of the skin accompanied by intense itching, of unknown etiology.

Neurodermatitis or Lichen

is a simplex chronicus or scratch dermatitis, is a stubborn skin condition that occurs when individuals excessively scratch an area of skin.

Cold sores and Fever Blisters

are skin eruptions occurring about the perimeter of the mouth, lips, and nose or on the mucous membranes within the mouth.

Herpes Zoster (shingles)

is an acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally on the face.

Skin Carcinomas

linked directly to UVA/UVB exposure
*melanoma: spreads quickly, sunburns/tanning beds, need to cut out lesions, use chemo or immunotherapy; cancer in bloodstream, very deadly, latency=3-7 hrs
*basal cell: outer skin layers; raised lesion, scab never heals
*squamous cell: deeper skin layers; keratosis (rough red spot that develops in sun exposed area)

Malignant Melanoma

is a neoplasm composed of abnormal melanocytes appearing in both the epidermis and dermis.

Common Symptoms Of Skin Diseases and Disorders

Individuals may present with the following common complaints, which deserve attention from health-care professionals: Skin eruptions, Pruritus, Erythema, Pain, Swelling, Inflammation.

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