Foundations Midterm

254 terms by lpadancer

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Olympic Games

Greek sporting festival held every four years to honor Zeus

Iliad

a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the siege of Troy

Odyssey

a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy

oligarchy

form of government in which a few people have the power

Euclid

Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria

Hera

queen of the Olympian gods in ancient Greek mythology

oracle

a prophecy (usually obscure or allegorical) revealed by a priest or priestess

Pheidippedes

The traditional story relates that Pheidippides (530 BC-490 BC), an Athenian herald, was sent to Sparta to request help when the Persians landed at Marathon, Greece.

Archimedes

Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)

Thucydides

Greek historian. Considered the greatest historian of antiquity, he wrote a critical history of the Peloponnesian War that contains the funeral oration of Pericles

rhetoric

study of the technique and rules for using language effectively (especially in public speaking)

drama

a dramatic work intended for performance by actors on a stage

Hellenistic

Greek-like

Minoans

earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of Crete by 2000 B.C.

Dorians

A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.

polis

a self-governing city-state; the basic political unit of the Greek world. The polis comprised a city, with its acropolis and agora and the surrounding territory.

phalanx

formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears; group of men packed together (for attack or defense)

tyrant

a cruel and oppressive dictator

Aristophanes

an ancient Greek dramatist remembered for his comedies (448-380 BC)

Dionysus

God of wine

Socrates

philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method

Delian League

Pact joined in by Athenians and other Greeks to continue the war with Persia

Peloponnesian

war lasting from 431 to 404 B.C. in which athens and its allies were defeated

League

a group of allies

tragedy

an event resulting in great loss and misfortune

philosopher

lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge; person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason

Myceneans

people from Greek mainland who conquered central Crete; warring people who grouped themselves into clans and tribes

Homer

ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)

Acropolis

a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs

Spartans

the group of soldiers that took kids at the age of 6 to make them into fighters

Athens

Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.

Polytheistic

Belief in many gods

Aphrodite

goddess of love and beauty and daughter of Zeus in ancient mythology

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)

Battle of Salamis

Surprise defeat of Persians by Athens navy

Golden Age of Athens

a time of great prosperity and achievement.

Plato

Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society

Peloponnesian

of or relating to Peloponnesus

legislature

a group of people chosen to make laws

direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

Mount Olympus

the higest mountain in Greece, where the ancient Greeks believed many of their gods and godesses lived

Pericles

Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece

Battle of Marathon

a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians

Xerxes

son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.

Aristotle

philosopher who wrote more than 200 books from politics to astronomy; made Lyceum and Assembly, two schools

Stoicism

(philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

Hippocrates

Father of Medicine

Herodotus

the ancient greek known as the father of history

Trojan War

A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.

Epic

a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds

Helots

Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.

Solon

Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt

Zeus

king of the Greek Gods

Athena

Goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare

King Darius

king of Persia who tried to invade Greece but was defeated

Parthenon

temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena

Sophocles

writer of plays; used three actors; and made Oedipus Rex, and Antigone

Alexander the Great

Greek military leader whos armies conquerd vast amounts of land, ruler of 1st great European Empire of the ancient world

Agora

the marketplace in ancient Greece

Bard

a lyric poet

Virgil

Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied

Consuls

Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies

tribunes

Officials elected by Rome's popular assemblies

Battle of Zama

the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War

Diocletian

He was a general that became emperor in A.D. 284, introduced reforms

Mark Antony

general and ally of Caesar, divided the Roman world with Octavian, committed suicide with Cleopatra

Hadrian

The Roman Empire in AD 117-138. He ordered the construction of this wall. He traveled though his empire to strengthen it's frontiers and encourage learning and architecture.

Bread and Circuses

public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire

Pantheon

all the gods of a people or religion

Circus Maximus

Roman oval arena; site of chariot races

Apostles

Followers associated most closely with Jesus

Diaspora

the body of Jews (or Jewish communities) outside Palestine or modern Israel

Christianity

the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ

Persecution

mistreatment of people because of their beliefs

Hierarchy

a group organized by rank

Aeneid

epic poem by Virgil that told the story of a great Trojan hero, Aeneas

dictator

A ruler who has complete power over a country

veto

vote against

Carthage

an ancient city-state in N Africa, near modern Tunis: founded by the Phoenicians in the middle of the 9th century b.c.; destroyed in 146 b.c. in the last of the Punic Wars.

Cato

the Roman senator who feared Carthage would grow too strong and ended every speech with a cry, "Carthage must be destroyed!"

"Veni, Vidi, Vici"

I came, I saw, I conquered, I came, I saw, I conquered, Julius Caesar Battle of Zela 47 B.C.

Augustus

First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.

Marcus Aurelius

last emperor of the Pax Romana

civil law

the legal code of ancient Rome

Jerusalem

A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.

Jews

followers of judaism

martyrs

People who suffer or die for their beliefs

Constantinople

capital of the Byzantine Empire

New Testaments

the collection of books of the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline and other Epistles, and Revelation

Republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting. (Like the USA)

Plebeians

lower class, usually small farmers

Punic Wars

Roman victory over Carthage

Spartacus

a gladiator who lead a slave revolt

Cleopatra

beautiful and charismatic queen of Egypt

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.

Gladiators

Trained fighters who were usually slaves, slaves in the Roman empire who fought to death as entertainment

Colosseum

A large stadium in ancient Rome where athletic events took place

Satire

language or writing that exposes follies or abuses by holding them up to ridicule

Jesus

A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians know that he to be Son of God and the Christ.

Senate

the upper house of the United States Congress

forum

a place of assembly for the people in ancient Greece

Rubicon River

a river in Italy. On the night of January 10, 49 BC, Caesar took his army across it. He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and Pompey fled.

Hannibal

swore to his father, Hamilcar, to get revenge on Rome, made Carthage army when age 29 and attacked Rome, general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War

Julius Caesar

Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.

Ides of March

March 15, 44 BC the day Ceasar was murdered

Caligula

roman emperor who named his horse the senator

Cicero

a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)

aqueducts

Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities

zealots

groups of Jews who wanted to rebel aginast the Romans

messiah

Jesus Christ

disciples

those who follow Jesus

gentiles

People who are not Jewish

Edict of Milan

313 CE Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire

Patricians

the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

Twelve Tables

Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.

Legion

a large military unit

Livy

Historian of Roman Republic who wrote about the struggle between plebians and patricians

Pompey

his allies in the Senate ordered Caesar to give up command of his armies

Octavian

first emperor of Rome

Nero

Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)

concrete

adj. based on facts, not on ideas or guesses

Ptolemy

ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe

Roman Law

the legal code of ancient Rome

Peter/ Paul

2 of the 12 disciples of Jesus

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)

Huns

a powerful nomadic people of unknown ethnic origin who invaded europe

Age of Faith

What the middle ages was called because of the widespread Christian belief

Charlemagne

king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor

Vikings

Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia

troubadours

wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women

sacraments

Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church

Benedict

Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480-547)

Pope Gregory VII

Pope from 1073 to 1085; excommunicated Henry IV then forgave him, later was deposed by Henry IV, no nuetral view; aroused most hatred and contempt; banned lay investiture

castle life

wasn't nice like in fairy tales, it was where farm animals and sewage were kept

Dominicans

founded by St. Dominic de Guzman; vows of poverty; stressed missionary work; preached gospel and fought heresy

trade fairs

an event at which many different companies show and sell their products , trade show

simony

the selling of official positions in the medieval roman catholic church

manor

the landed estate of a lord (including the house on it)

apprentice

works for an expert to learn a trade

canon law

body of laws of a church

Benedictine rule

Set of rules that govern monk's ives

friar

A member of a catholic religious order

Eleanor of Aquitaine

powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about half of France with him

Dark Ages

the dark period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance

usury

the act of lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest

feudalism

system in which poor people are legally bound to work for wealthy landowners

anti-Semitism

prejudice and/or hatred of jews.

serf

(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

excommunication

the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church

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