The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
democrat who became United States president in 1933; his program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression became known as the "New Deal" and he remained president through WW II
the dust bowl
In the 1930's A series of major sandstorms that buried houses, destroyed farmland and killed livestock
the new deal
The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
the second new deal
After Roosevelt was reelected, he created new legislation that concentrated on relief and reform. This legislation was called...
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
federal program (part of the New Deal) of disability and retirement benefits that covers most working people
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Rural Electrification Administration
1935; made electricity available at low rates to American farm families in rural areas
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Civilian Conservation Corps
1933; New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Created the economic barriers existing between commercial/investment banks, insurance companies, and stock brokers so that each area acted independently from one another
FDR plan to get his legislation passed, add 6 new cabinet members to Supreme Court to the 9 member Cabinet-ruled unconstitutional
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
American Federation of Labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
a dam built in the 1930s, with funding from the federal government, to control the Colorado River (provided employment in Southeast)
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
stock market crash
The Stock Market Crash was when, flooded with investments (particularly those buying "on margin, or paying a fraction of the total price or a transaction and the broker lending the trader the rest), the Stock Market crashed after those who bought on margin were forced to either put up more money or sell their stock, choosing to sell. Thousands of people sold their stocks at once, and a financial panic ensued.
U.S. president who stressed the importance of keeping the government from meddling in the majority of business affairs
leader of the Back to Africa Movement, encouraged blacks to create society free from control of white man
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Ku Klux Clan
VIolent racist group which targetted blacks, Jews, and many more, population boomed during 1920's
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, fought to protest racial violence/promote legislation to protect African American rights
Began Prohibition, banned the sale, consumption, and manufacture of alcohol in the U.S.
Established a Prohibition Bureau in Treasury Department in 1919, enforcement proved to be too difficult
Provided for transportation, making cities more accessible from rural areas, also provided a place for young loves to run away to
The Great Migration
Movement during 1920's in which blacks moved into Northern Cities (led to Harlem Rennaissance)
Austrian psychologist who encouraged Americans to have an uninhibited sex life=more people began having sex
Modern dancers who wore clothing that was quite scandalous and unlike anything that had been seen before
Sacco and Vanzetti
Two Italian anarchists who were put on trial for murder/sentenced to death (received unfair trial due to race/political views)
Attempt by U.S. government to limit the number of immigrants who could enter the country
Allowed for modern machinery which could accomplish everyday tasks quite easily, allowing for Americans to have more leisure time
Put teacher on trial for teaching evolution, brought about heated controversy over teaching science/religion in public schools