Which senses are served by receptors that are separate cells?
The special senses of vision, taste, hearing, and equilibrium are served by separate sensory cells.
Which sensations can arise when free nerve endings are stimulated?
Pain, thermal sensations, and tickle and itch arise with activation of different free nerve endings.
Which visceral organ has the broadest area for referred pain?
The kidneys have the broadest area for referred pain.
How is a muscle spindle activated?
Muscle spindles are activated when the central areas of the intrafusal fibers are stretched.
What are the two major tracts that form the posterior columns?
The posterior columns consist of the cuneate fasciculus and the gracile fasciculus.
What types of sensory deficits could be produced by damage to the right spinothalamic tract?
Damage to the right spinothalamic tract could result in loss of pain, thermal, itch, and tickle sensations on the left side of the body.
Which cranial nerve conveys impulses for most somatic sensations from the left side of the face into the pons?
The left trigeminal (V) nerve conveys nerve impulses for most somatic sensations from the left side of the face into the pons.
How do the somatosensory and motor representations compare for the hand, and what does this difference imply?
The hand has a larger representation in the motor area than in the somatosensory area, which implies greater precision in the hand's movement control than fine ability in its sensation.
How do the functions of upper motor neurons from the cerebral cortex and from the brain stem differ?
Cerebral cortex UMNs are essential for the execution of voluntary movements of the body. Brain stem UMNs regulate muscle tone, control postural muscles, and help maintain balance and orientation of the head and body.
Which tract conveys nerve impulses that result in contractions of muscles in the distal parts of the limbs?
The lateral corticospinal tract conducts impulses that result in contractions of the muscles in the distal parts of the limbs.
The axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the motor nuclei of which cranial nerves?
The axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the motor nuclei of the following cranial nerves: oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), trigeminal (V), abducens (VI), facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), accessory (XI), and hypoglossal (XII).
Which tracts carry information from proprioceptors in joints and muscles to the cerebellum?
The anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts carry information from proprioceptors in joints and muscles to the cerebellum.
Why should every sleeping room have a smoke detector?
Olfactory input does not stimulate the RAS; a smoke detector responds to smoke by sounding a loud bell or buzzer, which awakens sleepers by providing auditory input that stimulates the RAS.
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
Give examples of exteroreceptors
The sensations of hearing, vision, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, and pain are conveyed by exteroreceptors.
Which receptors adapt most slowly?
Which type of stimuli is sensed using encapsulated nerve endings?
Touch, pressure, vibration, stretching of skin, muscle length, muscle tension, and joint position and movement.
What are the steps in the process of sensation?
1. Stimulation of the sensory receptor. 2. Transduction of the stimulus. 3. Generation of nerve impulses. 4. Integration of sensory input.
What layer of skin contains the cold thermoreceptors?
Interoceptors are found in
Blood vessels, visceral organs, and muscles.
What occurs during sleep?
Decreased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, skeletal muscle tone decreases, and dream during REM sleep.
What are the events in the process of sensation?
Stimulation of the sensory receptor, transduction of the stimulus, generation of nerve impulses, and integration of sensory input.
These are sensory receptors that are located in blood vessels and visceral organs and their signals are not usually consciously perceived.
This type of sensory receptor responds to stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue.
The process in which the frequency of nerve impulses in the first-order neuron decreases during prolonged stimulus is called
Which types of touch receptors are slowly adapting?
Merkel (tactile) discs (type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors), ruffinii corpuscles (type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors), and itch and tickle receptors.
Which types of touch receptors are rapidly adapting?
Meissner corpuscles (corpuscles of touch), hair root plexuses, pacinian (lamellated) corpuscles, and itch and tickle receptors.
What layer of the skin contains the cold thermoreceptors?
Visceral pain results from stimulating
Proprioceptive sensations allow us to estimate the weight of certain objects and to determine position of body structures relative to each other. Proprioceptors are slowly adapting receptors and are embedded in muscles and tendons.
The main function of muscle spindles is
To sense changes in muscle length.
What are the proprioceptors found in the articular capsules of synovial joints?
What does the postcentral gyri of the parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex do?
Receives body sensory information.
Which types of neurons conduct impulses from the peripheral somatic sensory receptors to the brain stem or spinal cord?
First Order Neuron
Which types of neurons conduct sensory impulses from the brain stem and spinal cord to the thalamus?
Second Order Neuron
Which types of neurons conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex?
Third Order Neuron
Proprioception means awareness of
Which type of neurons have their cell bodies in the spinal cord or brain stem and their axons terminating in neuromuscular junctions?
Somatic Sensory Neurons
Which types of neurons have axons that extend from the brain to the lower motor neurons?
Upper Motor Neurons
Which pathways are direct motor pathways?
Corticospinal pathways and cotricobulbar pathway.
The basal nuclei regulate skeletal muscle movements by
Suppressing unwanted movements, influencing muscle tone, and initiating and terminating movements.
What occurs during sleep?
decreased heart rate and blood pressure, skeletal muscle tone decreases, and dream during REM sleep.
What category of receptor cell is used to sense touch, vibration and pressure?
What category of receptor cell is used to sense changes in temperature?
What category of receptor cell is used to sense light?
What category of receptor cell is used to sense changes in the concentration of chemicals in body fluids?
What category of receptor cell is used to sense changes in the osmotic pressure of body fluids?
Which types of stimuli are sensed by free nerve endings?
Touch, pressure, itch, tickle, temperature, and pain.
Which types of stimuli are sensed using encapsulated nerve endings?
Touch, pressure, vibration, stretching of skin, and muscle tension.
What are specialized sensory receptor cells that are known as a "separate cell"?
Hair cells, gustatory receptor cells, and photoreceptors.
Which disorder is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep and staying asleep?
Which disorder is characterized by involuntary periods of sleep that occur throughout the day?
Which disorder is characterized by a person's breathing repeatedly stopping for 10 or more seconds while sleeping?
Which condition is a state of unconsciousness in which a person's responses to stimuli are reduced or absent?
Which condition is characterized by a lack of memory for events occurring after the trauma or disease that caused the condition?
The process of sensation begins in a __________ , which can be either a primary sensory neuron or a separate cell.
Sensory Receptor Cell
______________ is a term used to describe pain that is felt at a site remote from the place of origin.
The integration centers for sensations that are consciously perceived (like vision, smell, taste, and pain) are found in the
Which region of the brain compares the intentions of skeletal muscle movements with the actual movement performed and then sends out corrective feedback to upper motor neurons?
Which disorders result from some form of malfunction by the basal nuclei?
Parkinson disease, huntington disease, tourette syndrome, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Infants spend approximately 50% of their sleeping time in
Which stage of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is considered the deepest level of sleep?
During the process of learning, the brain shows a characteristic called ______, which is the ability to change in response to intensive usage for a particular task like memorizing a page of physiology notes.
Individuals who have Parkinson's disease (PD) ___ .
Release deficient amounts of dopamine.