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develops a plan for reducing or eliminating the harmful effects of a problem

. Problem solving occurs when a group
a. reaches a conclusion.
b. passes judgment on an issue under consideration.
c. develops a plan for reducing or eliminating the harmful effects of a problem.
d. chooses among alternatives.
e. analyzes the history, causes, and effects of a problem.

Groups usually take less time to make a decision than an individual working
alone

. All of the following statements describe decision making in groups EXCEPT
a. Groups usually take less time to make a decision than an individual working alone.
b. A group generates more ideas than an individual working alone.
c. Groups generally produce better decisions than individuals.
d. all of the above
e. none of the above

there is no other way to break a deadlock

. As a decision-making method, voting works best when
a. a group is not pressed for time.
b. an issue is highly controversial.
c. a group is small enough to make vote counting easy.
d. there is no other way to break a deadlock.
e. the group usually uses voting to make decisions.

15

A company's recycling task force is composed of 15 members. If the task force
makes decisions based on a consensus, how many members must be in favor of the
group decision?
a. 5
b. 7
c. 8
d. 10
e. 15

Use techniques such as trading one decision for another

. All of the following guidelines help a group achieve consensus EXCEPT
a. Get everyone involved in the discussion.
b. Welcome differences of opinion.
c. Listen carefully to other members.
d. Use techniques such as trading one decision for another.
e. Don't be stubborn and argue only for your own position.

In order to avoid disagreement and conflict, group members agree on a
common decision

What are the signs of a false consensus?
a. Every group member agrees to support a decision or action.
b. In order to avoid disagreement and conflict, group members agree on a common
decision.
c. In order to achieve consensus, all group members take part in shaping a decision.
d. A decision is made that avoids a win/loss vote.
e. Consensus presents a united front to outsiders

1

. There are 12 members in your group. How many members must be in favor of a
proposal when deciding by authority rule?
a. 1
b. 6
c. 7
d. 10
e. 12

authority rule

A company's recycling task force gathered information on various recycling
programs and met several times to choose which program would best suit the needs
of the company. The group's recommendation was presented to the company's vice
president of operations, who ultimately chose a program other than the one
recommended by the task force. Which method of decision making was used in this
situation?
a. authority rule
b. consensus
c. majority vote
d. minority rule
e. 2/3 vote

fact

. "How many of our company employees hire a daycare provider to watch their
children during the workday?" This group discussion question represents a
question of
a. policy.
b. procedure.
c. fact.
d. conjecture.
e. value.

value

Is it appropriate for parents to bring their children to work when they can't get a
babysitter or their daycare center closes for a day?" This group discussion
question represents a question of
a. policy.
b. procedure.
c. fact.
d. conjecture.
e. value.

policy

. "How can the company assist employees with their childcare needs?" This group
discussion question represents a question of
a. policy.
b. procedure.
c. fact.
d. conjecture.
e. value.

conjecture

. "Who will be the next student government president?" This discussion question
represents a question of
a. policy.
b. procedure.
c. fact.
d. conjecture.
e. value.

policy

. A Congressional debate on a bill to increase penalties for fraud committed by
business CEOs is a question of
a. fact.
b. value.
c. policy.
d. procedure.
e. conjecture.

intuitive

. In their book, Decision Making Styles, Suzanne Scott and Reginald Bruce look at 5
decision-making styles. Group members who say "It just feels like the right thing
to do" are most likely using the __________ decision-making style.
a. rational
b. intuitive
c. dependent
d. avoidant
e. spontaneous

dependent

. In their book, Decision Making Styles, Suzanne Scott and Reginald Bruce look at 5
decision-making styles. Groups members who say "If you think it's okay, then I'll
do it" are most likely using the __________ decision-making style.
a. rational
b. intuitive
c. dependent
d. avoidant
e. spontaneous

rational

. In their book, Decision Making Styles, Suzanne Scott and Reginald Bruce look at 5
decision-making styles. Which of these styles is most like the Myers-Briggs's
personality trait of thinker?
a. rational
b. intuitive
c. dependent
d. avoidant
e. spontaneous

increased time and effort

. All of the following benefits can result when a group uses structured problem-solving procedures effectively EXCEPT
a. increased time and effort.
b. balanced participation.
c. conflict resolution.
d. organization.
e. group empowerment.

the Standard Agenda

. Which of the following problem-solving procedures is based on John Dewey's
Reflective Thinking Process?
a. the Standard Agenda
b. the Single Question Format
c. Nominal Group Technique
d. brainstorming
e. Functional Theory

establishment of procedure

. All of the following steps are part of the Standard Agenda format for group
problem solving EXCEPT
a. task clarification
b. establishment of procedure
c. problem identification
d. fact finding
e. solution suggestions

task clarification, problem identification, fact finding

. The first 3 steps in the Standard Agenda format of group problem solving are
a. problem identification, fact finding, solution evaluation and selection.
b. problem identification, task clarification, solution implementation.
c. task clarification, problem identification, fact finding.
d. fact finding, problem identification, task clarification.
e. fact finding, solution criteria, solution selection.

analysis paralysis

. Getting bogged down in analyzing the problem is referred to as
a. groupthink.
b. conjecture.
c. consensus.
d. analysis paralysis.
e. fact finding.

all of the above

. In what way is Functional Theory different than the Standard Agenda method of
problem solving?
a. Competent performance of each function is more important than performing the
function in an exact order.
b. Functional Theory recognizes that group goals and unspoken assumptions can
affect the choice of solutions.
c. Functional Theory emphasizes the group's ability to recognize and understand both
the pros and cons when considering a solution.
d. Communication is the instrument used, with varying degrees of success, to reach
decisions and generate solutions.
e. all of the above

preparation, competence, and communication

The Functional Theory approach to problem solving focuses on
a. giving group members a chance to hear and understand the opinions and needs of
others.
b. planning and coordinating the many steps needed to carry out a solution or agreed-upon action.
c. allowing ideas to be generated by individuals working alone rather than emerging
from group interaction.
d. generating as many ideas as possible in a short period of time.
e. preparation, competence, and communication

identify the problem, create a collaborative setting, analyze the issues

. The first 3 steps in the Single Question Format for problem solving are
a. analyze the issues, identify the problem, identify possible solutions.
b. identify the problem, create a collaborative setting, analyze the issues.
c. create a collaborative setting, analyze the issues, identify the problem.
d. analyze the issues, identify possible solutions, answer the single questions.
e. task clarification, fact finding, solution selection

It focuses on goal clarity and cultivating a supportive communication

. Which of the following characteristics makes the Single Question Format different
compared to the Standard Agenda?
a. It focuses on decision making and creativity.
b. It focuses on the competent performance of each problem-solving phase.
c. It focuses on task clarification solution implementation.
d. It focuses on goal clarity and cultivating a supportive communication climate.
e. It focuses on seeking consensus and avoiding false consensus

interpretation

All of the following answers represent basic stages in the development of group
creativity EXCEPT
a. investigation.
b. imagination.
c. interpretation.
d. incubation.
e. insight.

brainstorming

Your group needs to come up with a discussion topic for a class assignment. The
group works together, suggesting as many topics as possible. Members
welcome all ideas and do not criticize the suggestions of other members. Which
decision-making method is the group using?
a. the Functional Approach
b. the Single Question Format
c. brainstorming
d. consensus seeking
e. Nominal Group Technique

Avoid combining ideas

. All of the following are considered guidelines for effective brainstorming
EXCEPT
a. Evaluate ideas only at the end.
b. Post the ideas for all to see.
c. Wait awhile for group members to think before starting the brainstorming.
d. Avoid combining ideas.
e. Do not praise other members' ideas as they're suggested

Nominal Group Technique

. _______________ was developed by Delbecq and Van de Ven as a way of
maximizing participation in problem-solving and program-planning groups while
minimizing some of the interpersonal problems associated with group interaction.
a. The Standard Agenda
b. Brainstorming
c. The DOT Method
d. Nominal Group Technique
e. Single Question Format

members, in turn, present one idea from their privately written list

. During Phase 1 (Idea Generation) of Nominal Group Technique,
a. members explain their support or nonsupport for each item.
b. members, in turn, present one idea from their privately written list.
c. members discuss the merits of each idea before voting occurs.
d. members vote by ranking or rating ideas privately and in writing.
e. the group decision is the mathematically pooled outcome of members' individual
votes.

members in brainstorming sessions produce fewer ideas than NGT groups

Researchers investigating the usefulness of brainstorming and Nominal Group
Technique conclude that Nominal Group Technique (NGT) works better for
generating ideas for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a. waiting to speak in brainstorming may disrupt the thinking process.
b. members in brainstorming sessions produce fewer ideas than NGT groups.
c. members who fear evaluation may not be willing to contribute ideas.
d. members who make more contributions in brainstorming may earn high status and
influence.
e. members may loaf and let others do all the thinking and talking

the group wants to ensure equal opportunities for input by all members

. Consider using the Decreasing Options Technique (DOT) when
a. the group is small, with no more than 7 members.
b. members cannot generate many ideas or solutions.
c. the group wants to hear from expert and influential members.
d. the group wants to ensure equal opportunities for input by all members.
e. the group has plenty of time to discuss multiple or controversial ideas.

helps reduce and refine a large number of suggestions into a manageable
number of ideas

The major advantage and reason for using the DOT method is that it
a. focuses on preparation, competence, and communication functions.
b. requires members to analyze questions of fact, value, conjecture, and policy.
c. helps reduce and refine a large number of suggestions into a manageable number
of ideas.
d. relies on the creativity of all members.
e. helps avoid negative evaluation and criticism of ideas and solutions.

generate ideas, post ideas, sort ideas, dot ideas

. Which is the correct order of the four steps in the Decreasing Options Technique?
a. generate ideas, post ideas, sort ideas, dot ideas
b. dot ideas, sort ideas, post ideas, generate ideas
c. generate ideas, post ideas, dot ideas, sort ideas
d. post ideas, generate ideas, dot ideas, sort ideas
e. post ideas, generate ideas, sort ideas, dot ideas

innovation

Lee Towe presents 4 sources of action that guide how we solve problems. Which
source does Towe describe as "We have developed a new way to do it"?
a. inertia
b. instruction
c. imitation
d. innovation
e. investigation

ask "what if?"

One of the reasons groups are often reluctant to think creatively is that they have
preconceived notions about what can and can't be done. In such cases, your group
may want to try the _____________ method of enhancing creativity.
a. control judgment
b. ask "what if?"
c. encourage innovation
d. use metaphors
e. use imitation

. pre-existing preferences

There are several problem-solving realities that can prevent a group from
working effectively and ethically. For example, if members resist or dismiss
information that doesn't mesh with their personal inclinations and attitudes, what
problem-solving reality may impair group effectiveness?
a. politics
b. pre-existing preferences
c. power
d. procedural paralysis
e. polychronics

power

There are several problem-solving realities that can prevent a group from
working effectively and ethically. For example, a strong and stubborn leader can
lead group members off on tangents and irrelevant discussions that have nothing
to do with the group's goal. In this particular case, ____________ will likely affect
the outcome of every decision and problem the group confronts.
a. politics
b. pre-existing preferences
c. power
d. procedural paralysis
e. polychronics

politics

There are several problem-solving realities that can prevent a group from
working effectively and ethically. For example, a member may side with a group
leader into order to gain the leader's attention and backing. In this particular
case, ____________ will likely affect the outcome of every decision and problem
the group confronts.
a. politics
b. pre-existing preferences
c. power
d. procedural paralysis
e. polychronics

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