concerns regarding disease patterns in the United States
The Dietary Guidelines were issued in response to
A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?
estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern.
EER refers to
You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The label tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.
Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called
Which of the following measures assess nutritional status?
Jeff, a world-class triathlete, visits a dietitian to obtain sports nutrition advice. During his visit, Jeff is asked to recall what he ate for the past 24 hours. Which part of a nutritional assessment is this?
Two tablespoons (tbsp) of salad dressing, peanut butter, or margarine is about the size of a
Recommended Dietary Allowance
The acronym RDA stands for
According to the USDA MyPyramid, an adult age 18 or older should consume ________________ cups of milk or milk equivalent per day on a 2,000-calorie diet? (write as a
Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products.
when you eat a serving of this product you will be getting 20 percent of the Daily Reference Value for total fat based on a 2,000-kcalorie diet.
A food label states that a serving of a particular product contains 13 grams of total fat and 20 percent of the Daily Value. This means that
Where does digestion begin?
To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
Which of the following act as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins required to perform specific body tasks?
After absorption from the small intestine into the portal vein, amino acids are carried to the
Partially digested food in the stomach is also known as _____________.
The _____________ prevents the entrance of food into the trachea.
Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
Which of the following can weaken esophageal sphincter tension and promote heartburn?
After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?
provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.
The villi of the small intestine
The ___________________________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.
Excessive acid production in the stomach or upper small intestine could result in
fruits and high fructose corn syrup
Major fructose sources include
Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make needed glucose, over time weakening the muscles and organs.
You are on a diet and eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrate per day. The claim made in the diet educational materials is that carbohydrate is the main culprit in being overweight, so it must be restricted. Which of the following will happen as a result of this low carbohydrate diet?
Which of the following is a major source of lactose?
The hormone _____________ is released from the pancreas when blood glucose is elevated above a normal range.
increase fluid intake.
When eating a high-fiber diet one should
For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?
The major source of glucose released to elevate a low blood glucose level is _____________.
Dietary fiber may play a role in the prevention of _____________ cancer.
ketones, ketone bodies
_____________ are products from partial fat metabolism as a result of too little dietary carbohydrate.
The disaccharides important in nutrition are sucrose, maltose, and _____________.
muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.
When insulin is released, it causes
The main function of glucose is to
Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to
_____________ are the building blocks of protein.
fatty acids and glycerol
Most fats in foods and the body are composed of
one double bond
A monounsaturated fatty acid contains
It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids
Which of the following is true about protein?
change a liquid fat to a solid fat.
The main reason for hydrogenating fats is to
it is an essential nutrient.
All of the following are characteristic of cholesterol except
Which of the following would be a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
avoiding consumption of deep fried foods at quick-service restaurants.
using tub margarines and vegetable oils.
using little or no stick margarine.
Timothy wants to avoid eating too much hydrogenated fat. All of the following are appropriate ways:
_____________ fatty acids contain no double bonds and remain solid at room temperature.
A(n) _____________ is the simplest form of lipid; it is a carbon chain, flanked by hydrogens, with an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end.
legumes and grains
The combination of plant foods that most often is used to provide complete protein is
500, five hundred
Restricting food and beverage intake by ____ kcal per day below calorie needs typically leads to weight loss of 1 pound per week.
represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.
The thermic effect of food
Her walking routine
Carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?
A body fat level of _____________ % or greater for men warrants a diagnosis of obesity.
The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called
the body mass index
Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state
Basal metabolism is the energy expended
What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
A body fat level of ____% or greater for women warrants a diagnosis of obesity.
The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is
increase physical activity.
As one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to
An increase in lean body mass
An increase in body temperature
Which of the following is associated with an increase in basal metabolism?
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
Vitamin E functions as a(n)
folate, folic acid, folacin
The vitamin that can mask B12 deficiency is _____________.
In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the
increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi
All of the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption except
a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.
If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be
The body can produce niacin from the amino acid _____________.
Vitamin _____________ is a water-soluble vitamin that enhances iron absorption.
It can lower elevated serum cholesterol
Bill's physician has prescribed an intake of 200 milligrams nicotinic acid (a form of niacin) to attempt to preserve his health. Which of the following is true about nicotinic acid consumption?
The vitamin that also is considered a hormone is vitamin _____________.
The vitamin required specifically in carbohydrate metabolism is vitamin B1 or __________.
The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin
Iron deficiency anemia is found among young children, adolescents, and menstruating women.
Which of the following statements is true about iron?
bones and teeth
In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
sodium and chloride
The two most significant extracellular ions are
_____________ is a disease in which bone mass is lost to such a degree that fractures can occur in bones, especially the wrist, spine, and hips.
fruits and vegetables
Potassium is found in the largest quantities in
It maintains fluid balance.
It assists nerve transmission.
It maintains normal heart function.
Potassium performs all the following functions:
is essentially the same
Compared to most municipal water supplies, bottled water
Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water.
There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine.
Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished.
Which of the following is true about the regulation of fluid in the body?
Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg.
It is important for nerve and heart function.
What is magnesium's primary function?
A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
phosphate and potassium.
Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of
For anyone who exercises regularly, the macronutrient that should make up the majority of total daily calorie intake is __________.
the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid.
The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is
Maxine Miles runs a marathon in 2 hours and 40 minutes. Most of the ATP for this activity is supplied by the process of _____________ glucose breakdown.
When ATP is produced in muscles from glucose without the use of oxygen, resulting in lactic acid, this is called _____________ glucose breakdown.
60 to 90 minutes
The use of sports drinks is critical for activities lasting
Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.
Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?
For aerobic glucose breakdown to take place, two- and three-carbon fragments must enter which cell organelle to be metabolized into carbon dioxide and water?
The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than for those who body build or lift weights.
Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?
weigh before and after the workout
The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to
get adequate calcium in the diet.
increase her kcalorie intake.
have her body fat percentage checked.
If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should:
Better sleep habits
Lower blood pressure
Less body fat
Which of the following are benefits of physical fitness?
ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate
The high energy compound that is made from carbohydrate, protein, and fat catabolism is
Female athlete triad
What is the name of the condition characterized by disordered eating, lack of menstrual periods, and osteoporosis?
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia overlap in some ways. In fact studies suggest that approximately _____________ percent of women diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa eventually develop bulimic symptoms.
have group intervention of friends and family to confront them with the problem.
One of the best ways to get anorexics into treatment is to
Most of the health problems in bulimia arise from
anorexics turn away from food during a crisis, whereas bulimics turn toward food
A difference between anorexics and bulimics is that
A common characteristic of both bulimics and anorexics is that they are
An eating plan that does not restrict particular foods, in which the person eats in response to hunger signals.
Which of the following is the best treatment approach for binge eating disorder?
Some common methods of __________ include vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, and excessive exercise.
Have high self-esteem
Which of the following is not characteristic of individuals who develop eating disorders?
The slower basal metabolism that occurs as a consequence of anorexia nervosa is caused by decreased synthesis of _____________ hormone.
Those with anorexia nervosa or bulimia need to seek _____________ help. Friends and family members should avoid trying to diagnose an eating disorder.
psychological denial of appetite.
Anorexia nervosa is defined as
Housing, sanitation and storage facilities, and education, communication, and transportation systems are called a country's
Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed
The organ system most affected by undernutrition in infancy and early childhood is the _____________ system
coronary heart disease
All of the following are results of undernutrition except
SNAP participants can use benefits to purchase food and garden seeds to grow food.
The Recovery Act increased benefits for SNAP participants.
SNAP is the new name for the Food Stamp Program.
Which of the following is true regarding the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
upper respiratory tract infections.
Homeless children suffer high rates of all of the following medical conditions:
Changing DNA inside grape seeds so they produce their own pesticide to prevent attack by insects
Which of the following is an example of genetic engineering?
The consequences of undernutrition are most critical during
The root cause of hunger and undernutrition in the United States continues to be
All of the following are socioeconomic factors affecting hunger in the Unites States
is malnutrition that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients or calories needed for optimal growth, development, and body function.
The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is
A new food preservation method, aseptic processing, is especially useful for
viruses and bacteria
The greatest health risk from food today is contamination via
fever, diarrhea, vomiting
Common symptoms of foodborne illness include
are hardy and survive freezing and relatively high temperatures and chlorination up to 10 ppm
is usually associated with meat and meat dishes, gravies, and improperly handled leftovers
Foodborne illness caused by Clostridium perfringens
when shopping, select meat, poultry, or fish first.
All of the following are good instructions for preventing foodborne illness except
the increasing use of food irradiation.
All of the following are reasons why the risk of having foodborne illness is increasing except
A common cause of foodborne illness that results from sneezing or coughing over food is
It can cause acute respiratory failure
Which of the following is not characteristic of Salmonella foodborne illness?
Environmental Protection Agency
Which of the following agencies regulates pesticides?
Increasing the acid content of a food is especially effective in preventing the growth of
increased availability of frozen food products
The incidence of foodborne illness is rising because of all the following factors except
The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the
Of all alcohol sources, _______________ (two words) often is singled out as the best choice because of the added bonus of the many phytochemicals present
lactose, heat-treated cows' milk protein, and vegetable oils
Many formula products for infants contain
Consume plenty of low-fat milk and dairy products
Sara is an administrator at a bank. Sara eats plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and lean meats. She is of Northern European descent and is quite small in stature. What could she do to live a more health-promoting lifestyle?
Consuming adequate ______ and ______ helps maximize the health of the immune system in elderly individuals
Most obese infants become normal weight preschoolers.
Fat cells can increase in number during infancy and adulthood.
If she limits kcalories during infancy, the growth of other organ systems may be retarded.
Mildred is worried about her infant becoming obese in adulthood. Which of the following would be accurate information if you were attempting to counsel her?
restricting weight gain to 15 to 18 pounds
All of the following are poor pregnancy practices except
Parents should present a variety of nutritious food choices and avoid making the dinner table into a battleground.
Which of the following is an appropriate feeding philosophy for children?
is the name of the chronic and progressive disease characterized by prolonged fatty infiltration of the liver with fibrous connective tissue replacing destroyed liver cells
A low-birth-weight infant weighs less than _______________ pounds
Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?
Vitamin needs generally increase during pregnancy, especially for