NCTC Nutrition

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All the study questions for all chapters in Basic Nutrition at NCTC with Contemporary Nutrition Ninth Edition.

concerns regarding disease patterns in the United States

The Dietary Guidelines were issued in response to

A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups

Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?

estimated calorie needs for the average person of a specific height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity pattern.

EER refers to

Daily Value

You pick up a box of Cheerios cereal in the supermarket. The label tells you that a 1-cup serving provides 25 percent of the ______ for iron.

anthropometry.

Measurements of height, weight, body circumferences, and body fat are called

Dietary analysis
Biochemical evaluation
Clinical evaluation

Which of the following measures assess nutritional status?

Diet history

Jeff, a world-class triathlete, visits a dietitian to obtain sports nutrition advice. During his visit, Jeff is asked to recall what he ate for the past 24 hours. Which part of a nutritional assessment is this?

golf ball

Two tablespoons (tbsp) of salad dressing, peanut butter, or margarine is about the size of a

Recommended Dietary Allowance

The acronym RDA stands for

3

According to the USDA MyPyramid, an adult age 18 or older should consume ________________ cups of milk or milk equivalent per day on a 2,000-calorie diet? (write as a

biochemical evaluation.

Missy visits a doctor because she feels tired most of the time, is easily distracted, and feels chilled. As part of her examination, Missy has blood drawn to be tested for concentrations of nutrients and their by-products.

when you eat a serving of this product you will be getting 20 percent of the Daily Reference Value for total fat based on a 2,000-kcalorie diet.

A food label states that a serving of a particular product contains 13 grams of total fat and 20 percent of the Daily Value. This means that

mouth

Where does digestion begin?

Lungs

To which body part does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?

DNA

Which of the following act as a code book for synthesizing specific proteins required to perform specific body tasks?

liver

After absorption from the small intestine into the portal vein, amino acids are carried to the

chyme

Partially digested food in the stomach is also known as _____________.

epiglottis

The _____________ prevents the entrance of food into the trachea.

Prevents intestinal contents from backing up into the stomach

What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?

alcohol
nicotine
coffee

Which of the following can weaken esophageal sphincter tension and promote heartburn?

lymphatic

After digestion and absorption, which circulatory system carries fat and fat-soluble vitamins?

provide an enormous surface area that facilitates absorption.

The villi of the small intestine

Endocrine

The ___________________________ system is made up of several glands that act in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and many other functions.

an ulcer

Excessive acid production in the stomach or upper small intestine could result in

fruits and high fructose corn syrup

Major fructose sources include

Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make needed glucose, over time weakening the muscles and organs.

You are on a diet and eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrate per day. The claim made in the diet educational materials is that carbohydrate is the main culprit in being overweight, so it must be restricted. Which of the following will happen as a result of this low carbohydrate diet?

Skim milk

Which of the following is a major source of lactose?

insulin

The hormone _____________ is released from the pancreas when blood glucose is elevated above a normal range.

increase fluid intake.

When eating a high-fiber diet one should

Brain

For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?

glycogen

The major source of glucose released to elevate a low blood glucose level is _____________.

colon, colorectal

Dietary fiber may play a role in the prevention of _____________ cancer.

ketones, ketone bodies

_____________ are products from partial fat metabolism as a result of too little dietary carbohydrate.

lactose

The disaccharides important in nutrition are sucrose, maltose, and _____________.

muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.

When insulin is released, it causes

supply energy

The main function of glucose is to

denaturation

Cooking an egg alters its appearance due to

amino acids

_____________ are the building blocks of protein.

fatty acids and glycerol

Most fats in foods and the body are composed of

one double bond

A monounsaturated fatty acid contains

It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids

Which of the following is true about protein?

change a liquid fat to a solid fat.

The main reason for hydrogenating fats is to

it is an essential nutrient.

All of the following are characteristic of cholesterol except

Safflower oil

Which of the following would be a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

avoiding consumption of deep fried foods at quick-service restaurants.
using tub margarines and vegetable oils.
using little or no stick margarine.

Timothy wants to avoid eating too much hydrogenated fat. All of the following are appropriate ways:

Saturated

_____________ fatty acids contain no double bonds and remain solid at room temperature.

fatty acid

A(n) _____________ is the simplest form of lipid; it is a carbon chain, flanked by hydrogens, with an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end.

legumes and grains

The combination of plant foods that most often is used to provide complete protein is

500, five hundred

Restricting food and beverage intake by ____ kcal per day below calorie needs typically leads to weight loss of 1 pound per week.

represents the Kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food.

The thermic effect of food

Her walking routine

Carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. She is 40 years old. Carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. In her younger days she lifted weights, but she has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. Recently, Carol was diagnosed with hypothyroidism, which lowers metabolism. Which of the following factors increases Carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?

24, twenty-four

A body fat level of _____________ % or greater for men warrants a diagnosis of obesity.

indirect calorimetry.

The method for determining energy expenditure in which the amount of oxygen a person uses is measured is called

the body mass index

Body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state

Basal metabolism is the energy expended

4

What would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?

35, thirty-five

A body fat level of ____% or greater for women warrants a diagnosis of obesity.

direct calorimetry

The method for determining energy expenditure that involves the measurement of heat given off by the body during a select period of time in an insulated chamber is

increase physical activity.

As one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to

An increase in lean body mass
Caffeine use
An increase in body temperature

Which of the following is associated with an increase in basal metabolism?

vitamin D

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

antioxidant

Vitamin E functions as a(n)

folate, folic acid, folacin

The vitamin that can mask B12 deficiency is _____________.

kidneys

In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

increases the risk of developing pellagra or beriberi

All of the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption except

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisin Bran.

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be

tryptophan

The body can produce niacin from the amino acid _____________.

C

Vitamin _____________ is a water-soluble vitamin that enhances iron absorption.

It can lower elevated serum cholesterol

Bill's physician has prescribed an intake of 200 milligrams nicotinic acid (a form of niacin) to attempt to preserve his health. Which of the following is true about nicotinic acid consumption?

D

The vitamin that also is considered a hormone is vitamin _____________.

thiamin

The vitamin required specifically in carbohydrate metabolism is vitamin B1 or __________.

K

The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is vitamin

Iron deficiency anemia is found among young children, adolescents, and menstruating women.

Which of the following statements is true about iron?

bones and teeth

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

sodium and chloride

The two most significant extracellular ions are

Osteoporosis

_____________ is a disease in which bone mass is lost to such a degree that fractures can occur in bones, especially the wrist, spine, and hips.

fruits and vegetables

Potassium is found in the largest quantities in

It maintains fluid balance.
It assists nerve transmission.
It maintains normal heart function.

Potassium performs all the following functions:

is essentially the same

Compared to most municipal water supplies, bottled water

Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water.
There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine.
Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished.

Which of the following is true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

140/90

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg.

It is important for nerve and heart function.

What is magnesium's primary function?

iodide.

A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of

phosphate and potassium.

Intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of

carbohydrate, carbohydrates

For anyone who exercises regularly, the macronutrient that should make up the majority of total daily calorie intake is __________.

the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid.

The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is

aerobic

Maxine Miles runs a marathon in 2 hours and 40 minutes. Most of the ATP for this activity is supplied by the process of _____________ glucose breakdown.

anaerobic

When ATP is produced in muscles from glucose without the use of oxygen, resulting in lactic acid, this is called _____________ glucose breakdown.

60 to 90 minutes

The use of sports drinks is critical for activities lasting

Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.

Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?

Mitochondrion

For aerobic glucose breakdown to take place, two- and three-carbon fragments must enter which cell organelle to be metabolized into carbon dioxide and water?

The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than for those who body build or lift weights.

Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?

weigh before and after the workout

The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to

get adequate calcium in the diet.
increase her kcalorie intake.
have her body fat percentage checked.

If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should:

Better sleep habits
Lower blood pressure
Less body fat

Which of the following are benefits of physical fitness?

ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate

The high energy compound that is made from carbohydrate, protein, and fat catabolism is

Female athlete triad

What is the name of the condition characterized by disordered eating, lack of menstrual periods, and osteoporosis?

50, fifty

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia overlap in some ways. In fact studies suggest that approximately _____________ percent of women diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa eventually develop bulimic symptoms.

have group intervention of friends and family to confront them with the problem.

One of the best ways to get anorexics into treatment is to

vomiting.

Most of the health problems in bulimia arise from

anorexics turn away from food during a crisis, whereas bulimics turn toward food

A difference between anorexics and bulimics is that

perfectionists.

A common characteristic of both bulimics and anorexics is that they are

An eating plan that does not restrict particular foods, in which the person eats in response to hunger signals.

Which of the following is the best treatment approach for binge eating disorder?

purging, purge

Some common methods of __________ include vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, and excessive exercise.

Have high self-esteem

Which of the following is not characteristic of individuals who develop eating disorders?

thyroid

The slower basal metabolism that occurs as a consequence of anorexia nervosa is caused by decreased synthesis of _____________ hormone.

professional

Those with anorexia nervosa or bulimia need to seek _____________ help. Friends and family members should avoid trying to diagnose an eating disorder.

psychological denial of appetite.

Anorexia nervosa is defined as

infrastructure

Housing, sanitation and storage facilities, and education, communication, and transportation systems are called a country's

undernutrition

Impaired development or function that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients needed for optimal growth, development, and body function is best termed

nervous

The organ system most affected by undernutrition in infancy and early childhood is the _____________ system

coronary heart disease

All of the following are results of undernutrition except

SNAP participants can use benefits to purchase food and garden seeds to grow food.
The Recovery Act increased benefits for SNAP participants.
SNAP is the new name for the Food Stamp Program.

Which of the following is true regarding the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

developmental delays.
upper respiratory tract infections.
tooth decay.

Homeless children suffer high rates of all of the following medical conditions:

Changing DNA inside grape seeds so they produce their own pesticide to prevent attack by insects

Which of the following is an example of genetic engineering?

infancy

The consequences of undernutrition are most critical during

poverty

The root cause of hunger and undernutrition in the United States continues to be

weather.
poverty.
homelessness.

All of the following are socioeconomic factors affecting hunger in the Unites States

Undernutrition

is malnutrition that results from an inadequate intake, absorption, or utilization of the nutrients or calories needed for optimal growth, development, and body function.

political

The major cause of undernutrition in the United States is

fruit juices

A new food preservation method, aseptic processing, is especially useful for

viruses and bacteria

The greatest health risk from food today is contamination via

fever, diarrhea, vomiting

Common symptoms of foodborne illness include

Norovirus

are hardy and survive freezing and relatively high temperatures and chlorination up to 10 ppm

is usually associated with meat and meat dishes, gravies, and improperly handled leftovers

Foodborne illness caused by Clostridium perfringens

when shopping, select meat, poultry, or fish first.

All of the following are good instructions for preventing foodborne illness except

the increasing use of food irradiation.

All of the following are reasons why the risk of having foodborne illness is increasing except

Staphylococcus aureus.

A common cause of foodborne illness that results from sneezing or coughing over food is

It can cause acute respiratory failure

Which of the following is not characteristic of Salmonella foodborne illness?

Environmental Protection Agency

Which of the following agencies regulates pesticides?

Clostridium botulinum

Increasing the acid content of a food is especially effective in preventing the growth of

increased availability of frozen food products

The incidence of foodborne illness is rising because of all the following factors except

placenta

The organ that nourishes the fetus in the mother's womb is called the

red wine

Of all alcohol sources, _______________ (two words) often is singled out as the best choice because of the added bonus of the many phytochemicals present

lactose, heat-treated cows' milk protein, and vegetable oils

Many formula products for infants contain

Consume plenty of low-fat milk and dairy products

Sara is an administrator at a bank. Sara eats plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and lean meats. She is of Northern European descent and is quite small in stature. What could she do to live a more health-promoting lifestyle?

protein; zinc

Consuming adequate ______ and ______ helps maximize the health of the immune system in elderly individuals

Most obese infants become normal weight preschoolers.
Fat cells can increase in number during infancy and adulthood.
If she limits kcalories during infancy, the growth of other organ systems may be retarded.

Mildred is worried about her infant becoming obese in adulthood. Which of the following would be accurate information if you were attempting to counsel her?

restricting weight gain to 15 to 18 pounds

All of the following are poor pregnancy practices except

Parents should present a variety of nutritious food choices and avoid making the dinner table into a battleground.

Which of the following is an appropriate feeding philosophy for children?

cirrhosis

is the name of the chronic and progressive disease characterized by prolonged fatty infiltration of the liver with fibrous connective tissue replacing destroyed liver cells

5.5

A low-birth-weight infant weighs less than _______________ pounds

80%

Approximately what percentage of obese adolescents become obese adults?

folate

Vitamin needs generally increase during pregnancy, especially for

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