a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
President of the Confederate States of America
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
First battle of bull run
First "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victory
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
leading Union general in the American Civil war
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
union general, 1st commander, overly cautious, fired by Lincoln
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
the second great battle of the American Civil War (1862)
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Monitor and Merrimac
First ironcald warships in the Civil War; posed a danger to North's blockade of the South
Sherman's March to the sea
sherman/ some 60000 troops set out to march across Georgia; burnt city and destroyed everything.
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Confederate victory in Virginia
Lee surrenders here, but Grant offers the Confederacy good surrender terms to try to reunify the country.
Morill Land Grant Act
Law Passed awarding proceeds from the scale of public land to the states for the established of agricultural and mechanical colleges
Wade Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
John WIlkes Booth
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
civil rights act
This secured the rights of freedmen., it gave citizenship to African- Americans
President who takes office after assassination of Lincoln
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
was directed to feeding and clothing war refugees in the south using surplus army supplies.
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
contract labor system
a system under which inmates' labor was sold on a contractual basis to private employers who provided machinery and raw materials with which inmates made salable products in the institution.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
Democratic candidate for presidency in 1876 won popular vote but was one vote short in electoral college, as compromise the republican candidate (Hayes) became president if troops were withdrawn from South ending the Reconstruction era
granted former slaves the right to marry, sue, testify in court, and hold property but with specific qualifications
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri-remained loyal to the Union
derogatory term for Northern Republicans who were involved in Southern politics during reconstruction
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
violent disturbances in NYC over the drafting
ex parte milligan
Ruled that a civilian cannot be tried in military courts while civil courts are available.
was the steam-propelled warship of the later 19th century protected by iron of steel armour plates
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war
term used to describe southern white republicans who opposed secession
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
ten percent plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government afetr ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States