Why did the socially complex and technologically advanced cultures of the Americas not develop the wheel?
with the exception of the llama, the people did not have large pack animals
What areas make up the Meso-American region
Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvidor, Belize
How did the division of labor affect Mesoamerican societies?
It created a hierarchy which formed the social organization of the societies.
Which of the following would account for the unique cosmopolitan character of Teotihuacán?
The cities diversified population
Which of the following has been proposed as the identity of the giant Olmec heads?
The layout of the La Venta site is an early form of the temple-pyramid and plaza complex. Which of the following is a possible explanation for the temple-pyramid?
mimics the sacred mountain
The human-animal representations used by Olmec religious practitioners are thought to symbolize which of the following?
transformations in order to wrest power from supernatural forces
West Mexican ceramics are noted for the small-scale narrative scenes including temples and houses with figurines shown in a variety of lively activities. Based on this information which of the following would support their value for analysis?
They may provide informal glimpses into daily life.
What architectural feature has been found in nearly all Mesoamerican cultures?
What significant change occurred at Teotihuacán?
It underwent monumental expansion into a genuine city.
Teotihuacán as well as its key pyramids are carefully oriented. Which of the following is the commonly suggested reasoning for such placement?
related to astronomical phenomena
Which of the following supports the importance of San Lorenzo and La Venta to Olmec culture?
represented the structure and ideals of Olmec society
Which of the following does the urban plan of Teotihuacán most resemble?
Hellenistic and Roman city planning
What does Mayan architecture signify?
power of the ruler
The Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period is _____________.
2000 BCE-CE 300
The economic base of Mesoamerican Mexico was which of the following?
cultivation of maize (corn)
The modern-day region occupied by the Classic Maya was which of the following?
Belize, southern Mexico, Honduras, and Guatemala
We have a much better understanding of the chronology of Mesoamerica due to the deciphering of the writing and dating system of which of the following groups?
Which of the following was one of the purposes of Maya ritual?
guaranteed the order of the state and the cosmos
Which of the following describes the Temple I at Tikal (Temple of the Giant Jaguar)?
the tomb of a ruler is found beneath it
Like most Mesoamerican cities, Teotihuacán had a mural program. One mural features a goddess, earth or nature, thought to be the city's principal deity. Among the motifs ascribed to this deity are human hearts that were essential attributes in the Mesoamerican ritual of human sacrifice. Which of the following is an explanation for the ritual of human sacrifice?
essential to agricultural renewal
Which of the groups below is often referred to as the "mother culture" of Mesoamerican Mexico?
Corbelled vault construction was typical of the architecture of the ___________
Which site did the Aztec visit with a deep sense of reverence?
Which of the following was typical of Mayan art and architecture?
creation of huge ceremonial centers
The feathered serpent is one guise of which Mesoamerican Mexican deity?
San Lorenzo and La Venta
religious civic centers
temple-pyramids (clay and earth) on plaza
glyphs represent sounds
Dresdon codex - one of the three known surviving codices
codex = manuscript
The Council Book - Important source of knowledge about Maya creation myths. Post-classic copy was transcribed by Quiche noble (of Maya descent) using Latin alphabet. Spanish priest found and translated it to spanish.
Popul Vuh recounts creation and 3-D cosmic order:
Earth platform (the Middleworld) separated from watery void of the Underworld. World tree at center supports sky-band (Overworld)
Popul Vuh - Creation of Humans
first try from mud; then from wood; flood sweeps away wood people. Finally people made from maize (corn) found in cleft/cave of sacred mountain to the north. Maya honored the ancestors and gods by giving blood, vital life force of cosmos.
Maya re-create 3-D cosmic order in temple plazas, art, ritual performances.
Plazas are dramatic settings for rituals: pyramids the backdrops; plaza the stage with stelae depicting rulers as lead actors. Maya temple-plazas reflect creation myths. flat plazas=earth-platform floating on underworld's watery-void; pyramids=sacred mountains of ancestors and gods; pyramids' multiple levels evoke Underworld's 9 levels. Vaulted tombs of rulers under some pyramids. Small temples at top like caves of the scared mountain where people were first made. Temples are portals to connect to ancestors and gods; portals between Underworld and Overworld.
Pakal's sarcophagus' lid
Ruler descends to Underworld at moment of death; skyband frames scene; Celestial bird at the top; directions and shape of cosmos indicated; sacred World Tree extends from center; Pakal at the axis mundi; sap/blood flowing through World tree and Pakal connecting three realms.
Temple-plaza of Tikal, Guatemala:
ceremonial plaza cleared of trees and grass, made flat, paved with white stone; painted stelae; blood red pyramids. Pyramid-Temple I faces another pyramid, also smaller pyramids around. Pyramids had inscriptions, painted reliefs and stucco carvings on roof combs
rulers and priests entered temples to invoke ancestors and gods through bloodletting rituals and visions
Temples were narrow, windowless rooms with corbelled vaults. Rituals taking place inside may have looked like relief carving on lintel from Yaxchilan temple: self-inflicted bloodletting ritual of Lady Xoc with king holding torch next to her. Another lintel (not in Gardner's) shows Lady Xoc after giving her blood: a vision serpent appears and she's visited by a royal ancestor
Stelae on temple-plazas show rulers; glyphs record their names, dates and achievements.
Some rulers are shown holding sky band and serving as crucial nexus/World Tree between realms. Stele at Copan represents 18-Rabbit holding double-headed serpent bar of sky
Bonampak painted murals show rituals on a terraced platform.
Warriors surround captives, present them to ruler. Warfare yielded captives whose sacrifice gave blood to ancestors and gods. Painting medium/technique combined fresco and tempera.
Chichén Itzá in Yucatán (Maya Post Classical Period)
A. Caracol: cylindrical tower on terrace supported by rectangular platform. Like a conch shell. Windows for astronomical observation
Chichén Itzá in Yucatán (Maya Post Classical Period)
B. El Castillo--the Pyramid of Kukulcan (Maya name for Quetzalcóatl). Pyramid designed as solar calendar: stairs on 4 sides add up to 365, number of days in year. Pyramid aligned with sun, so on spring equinox, sun hits side and makes snake pattern that descends from temple to ground.
Historians once referred to the Middle Ages roughly 400-1400 as the ______________.
Elaborately decorated Merovingian fibulae have been excavated from graves. Based on this it can be said these small objects are __________________.
emblems of prestige
In the later Middle Ages religious books were created for the private devotions of the laity. They were based on readers used by the monks. These books contained prayers to be read at specific times during the day. They were popularly known as _________________.
Book of Hours
What manuscript is commonly considered the greatest achievement in Hiberno-Saxon art?
Book of Kells
How does the portrait of St. Matthew from the Coronation Gospels differ from the portrait of St. Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels?
The Coronation Gospels used color and modulation of light and shade, not line, to create shapes
The Ebbo Gospels represent a new Carolingian vernacular. Which of the following describes the new Carolingian vernacular?
translated a classical prototype
What church plan was used as the model for the palace chapel at Aachen?
St. Benedict raised manual labor to the dignity of religion, which later became the core idea of the "work ethic." What significant change was made?
It displaced the idea of manual labor as disgraceful.
What do the doors of St. Michael at Hildesheim illustrate?
Original Sin and Redemption
The alternate support system is first found in the architecture of which period?
Irish or Celtic stone crosses are identifiable by which of the following?
a circle intersecting the cross arms
Who was a major force in the revival of the Classical style in early medieval times?
It has been said that Bernward's doors are instruments that detail Original Sin and Redemption by juxtaposing these two concepts side by side. Which juxtaposed panels from the doors would support this?
The Fall and the Crucifixion
_________________ was a possible model for Bernward's column because the narrative reads from top to bottom.
Early Medieval burial traditions were recorded in the __________________.
Saga of Beowulf
What was the primary vehicle used in the Christianization of the British Isles?
The primary sacred text was the Bible, consisting of the Old Testament originally written in Hebrew and the New Testament written in Greek. In what language is the Vulgate version of the Bible written?
The authorship of the Vulgate version of the Bible is commonly ascribed to _____________
St. Benedict is credited with changing the concept of manual labor as it was defined in monasteries. He wrote the "Rule" or Regula Sancti Benedicti that became the standard for western European monasteries. By initiating these changes he also sought to make monastic communities ___________________.
Which of the following manuscripts showed the greatest influence of Roman illusionism?
pins/brooches to fasten cloaks
metal decoration made of thin twisted wire. Animal forms integrated into pins shape: fish and eagle heads. Fish may symbolize ruler's conversion to Christianity.
Wooden animal head post: apotropaic device (wards off evil). Decorative patterns from metalwork carved in wood. (Viking ships)
New Testament Gospels (p. 412): Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, Four Evangelists.
Symbols: Matthew=man or winged angel; Mark=lion; Luke=ox; John=eagle.
Typical Structure of Gospels:
1. Book's cover (covered with jewels)
2. Canon tables
3. Ornamental or carpet page (example: Lindesfarne Gospels)
4. Evangelist's page: (examples: Matthew in Book of Durrow and in Lindesfarne Gospels). Shown as symbol (man, ox, lion or eagle) or in act of writing. Follow prototypes (models) of Greco-Roman world, but prototypes translated into vernacular (local) styles.
5. An incipit or initial page: (example: Book of Kells: with Chi-Rho-Iota page of the opening of Matthew's gospel) First letters or words of the Gospel book take up page and are elaborately decorated.
6. The text: more of page with written lines, but still words decorated.
Ireland's Celtic crosses the largest free-standing sculptures of the Early Middle Ages. interlaced patterns, but later crosses have narrative scenes from the life of Christ
ideal plan for Benedictine Monastery at St. Gall, Switzerland
square module, or "square schematism." --basilica-planned church: second rounded apse and transept added to west side. --Towers integrated on west side = westwork.
Charlemagne brought manuscripts from Rome: scholars and craftsmen came to Aachen
Alcuin of York
revised Bible and recovered its true text; it became authoritative source after which other copies were made. Carolingian scribes developed more legible script and copied many manuscripts.
Charlemagne's empire divided by grandsons into three weaker kingdoms. By mid 10th century a new Saxon line of German Emperors emerge "Three Ottos" as successors to Holy Roman Empire
Monasteries and Abbey churches use square modular that developed in Carolingian era.
Ex. St. Michael's Abbey church at Hildesheim, Germany
St. Michael's Abbey church at Hildesheim, Germany
built under Bishop Berward. Westwork towers matched by towers at the east. Interior clearly measured: each bay same square module as transepts crossings --
alternating pier and columns system breaks up each bay with pier-column-column-pier pattern (light and heavy)
Carolingian Manuscript illumination
borrowed from Late Roman prototypes: "St. Matthew" from the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne
Bishop Bernward saw Santa Sabina in Rome and was inspired by by its doors to create bronze doors at St. Michaels
Bronze doors at St. Michaels
Old Testament from top to bottom on left door.
New Testament from bottom to top on right door
style of painting is more abstract and stylized than the Carolingian period
Lectionary of Henry II
the "Annunciation to the Shepherds" shows the movement away from naturalism.
Gospel Book of Otto III
"Otto III Enthroned" shows the emperor receiving homage of four parts of the Empire with nobility on one side and clergy on the other. (He is larger than the others)
Ottonian dream of reviving Christian Roman Empire
Age of pilgrimages
"Roman-like" (rounded arches and stone barrel vaults)
The most venerated pilgrimage shrine in the West, outside Rome or Jerusalem, was the _____________________.
tomb of the Apostle James at Santiago de Compostela
What encouraged the growth of towns and cities?
the pilgrimage routes
Church interiors now became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics?
the continuous barrel-vaulted naves
The one important requirement often missing from these church interiors is light. Which of the following did not allow for interior lighting?
Barrel-vaults exerted great outward thrust making a clerestory difficult to construct
How did 11th century Romanesque masons construct monumental groin vaults?
using ashlar blocks joined by mortar
How is the initial R from the Moralia in Job typically Romanesque?
By the banding of the torso and the partitioning of the folds of the costumes
The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim?
It depicted an actual event (historical, not religious) right after it occurred.
The Vikings settled on the _______ coast of France.
Which of the following supports Eadwine's claim to self-importance?
He likened his image to an Evangelist writing his Gospel.
Which of the architectural elements below was used for the exterior supports on Romanesque buildings?
The prophet, identified either as Jeremiah or Isaiah, is tall and thin. The animation of his body reveals the inner passion of his soul. In which of the following churches does this figure appear?
The Norman defeat of the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 united all of England and most of France under one rule. The battle leading to this momentous occasion was the topic for the Bayeux Tapestry. Who commissioned this work?
Tall towers are integrated into the west front of which of the following?
The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following?
An important aspect of Romanesque manuscript illumination was based on which of the following?
the subordination of the figure to the frame
The tympanum at Moissac depicted which of the following?
The Last Judgement
Which architectural device was not used by Romanesque architects?
The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror's version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque art works. Which of the following supports this contention?
The focus of both the intellectual and religious life changed from monasteries in the countryside and pilgrimage churches to cathedrals in expanding cities. Which of the following would account for this change?
It was a time of great prosperity.
Which church was the burial church for the kings of France?
What best describes a characteristic of Gothic architecture?
its interior is flooded with light
What was a standard feature of French-Gothic architecture?
The portal sculptural program for Chartres Cathedral is distinctly different from its Romanesque counterparts. Which of the following accounts for this distinction?
the prominence of Mary in the portal
What church provides a comprehensive picture of Gothic architecture in the first half of the 12th century?
In Amiens Cathedral, the trumeau figure from the central doorway is a fully modeled figure with massive drapery folds. This figure represents a benevolent Christ. It is in sharp contrast to which of the following figures?
trumeau figure from Moissac
Paris claimed to be the intellectual center of Gothic Europe. Its university faculty and the reputations of its masons supported this claim. Which of the following also provided support for this claim?
It was a center for fine book production.
Which of the following is considered a masterpiece of the Rayonnant style?
Fan vaulting was most common in which of the following?
Late Gothic England
Abbot Suger is credited with creating which church?
What pose developed by the "court" style had a strong influence on Late Gothic sculpture?
Indicate which of the following is not a characterization of the changing social conditions in the Gothic period.
Flying buttresses eliminated which of the following?
Jean Pucelle illuminated which of the following?
The Reims portal sculpture of the Visitation has been described as two women conversing. This is in sharp contrast to earlier Gothic portal sculpture. How is the Visitation unique?
the figures are actors in a biblical narrative
Many Gothic cathedrals were dedicated to which of the following?
the Virgin Mary (Notre-Dame)
Perpendicular style was popular in which of the following countries?
The intense color and elegance of the Psalter of Saint Louis expresses the courtly style. Which of the following can also be associated with this manuscript?
Which of these churches embodies the essential characteristics of English Gothic architecture?
The elevation of Laon Cathedral differs from that of Chartres in what important respect?
absence of a gallery
The development of the Rayonnant style is connected with which of the following?
the court of Louis IX