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Which of the following helped foster the establishment of communist states in Eastern Europe after 1945?

Soviet diplomatic pressure, political infiltration, and military power.

To what does the term Iron Curtain refer?

the nickname given by Winston Churchill to the line separating Soviet-dominated Europe from capitalist Europe

Only one communist country, Yugoslavia, managed to steer clear of alliances during the Cold War and remain within neither the Soviet sphere of influence nor that of the West, primarily due to the strength of its leader:

Josip Broz (Marshal Tito)

In a 1947 speech to Congress, President Harry S. Truman set out his policy of support for the resistance of "free peoples" to communism by tying politics to economics; it would be a choice between "two ways of life." This policy was known as the:

Truman Doctrine

What was the "Berlin Airlift"?

a process of providing desperately needed food and supplies during the Soviet blockade of 1948

Which of the following was NOT an important element of the Marshall Plan?

the restriction of Catholic political movements that tended toward an inherent suspicion of American culture and political motives

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in 1949 by the United States and representatives of Western European states for the purpose of:

providing mutual defense: an attack against one was an attack against all.

In 1955 the Soviet Union and its allies in Eastern Europe responded to the formation of NATO with the:

Warsaw Pact

The arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union began in 1949 when the Soviet Union tested its own _____, a weapon on which the United States had a monopoly until that time.

atomic bomb

The stated U.S. policy of containment regarding the Soviet Union in the post-World War II world was set forth in 1946 by:

George Kennan

One result of the thaw in Soviet internal politics that followed Nikita Khrushchev's rise to power in 1956 was that some major Russian writers could finally be published. One of the more famous was Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, whose account of his time in the Soviet government's Siberian prison camps was entitled:

One Day in the life of Ivan Denisovich

Following Josef Stalin's death in 1953, many of the countries in Eastern Europe attempted to wrest some measure of independence from Moscow. Although Poland managed to establish a looser arrangement with Moscow, _________ pushed too far and was occupied by Soviet troops for a time.

Hungary

Two of the most influential international agencies, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, were designed to establish a stable economic landscape and were established in 1944 at:

Bretton Woods.

The British system of social welfare was grounded in the economic theories of:

John Maynard Keynes

Communism spread throughout Eastern Europe in the aftermath of World War II and Soviet occupation, but communism also took control of _________ in the 1940s through revolution.

China

The tenets of Marxism called for a revolution by the proletariat, the industrial workers, but China in the 1940s was a nation of peasants, so an adaptation of Marxism was provided by:

Mao Zedong

The great nationalist and follower of a philosophy of nonviolence, Mohandas K. Gandhi, led his country, _________ , into independence.

India

The British had been in political control of Palestine since World War I, but promised a portion of the land as a Jewish homeland with its 1917:

Balfour Declaration.

For the most part, when the European colonial powers left Africa, their legacy was:

such that virtually none of the former colonies possessed the means to make independence work.

In the late 1940s and with the concurrence of Britain, the Afrikaner government of South Africa instituted its racial policy of:

apartheid

The French appeared to have won a colonial war in Vietnam in 1951, but rather than begin peace talks and arrive at depolarization on favorable terms, they fought on and eventually lost everything at the battle of:

Dien Bien Phu.

Jean-Paul Sartre was the leading proponent of the twentieth-century philosophy of existentialism, which held that:

existence precedes essence

The leading feminist theorist of the mid-twentieth century, Simone de Beauvoir, wrote in The Second Sex that:

"One is not born a woman, one becomes one."

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