Public Speaking Final Chapter 15

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Understanding argument

True

True or False:Argument forms the foundation of persuasion.

false

True or False:Enthymemes are arguments in which a premise or conclusion is stated

false

True or False:Personal narratives are a common way persuasive speakers appeal to audiences' cultural beliefs.

true

True or False:Pathos relies on the use of emotional appeals and evidence.

true

True or False:Fallacies in evidence involve errors in the quality or consistency of the evidence the speaker uses to support her claim.

false

True or False:In an argument "reasoning" is the position or assertion a speaker wants the audience to accept.

true

True or False:In an argument, evidence is the supporting material used to reinforce a claim.

true

True or False:Arguments include two types of claims: conclusion and premise.

false

True or False:Qualifier" is another word for the claim.

false

True or False:The bottom level on Maslow's hierarchy of needs is "safety."

false

True or False:In deductive reasoning the speaker argues from the general principle to the specific instance.

false

True or False:. With inductive reasoning the speaker argues from the general principle to the specific instance.

false

True or False:Your speech should try to use as many fallacious arguments as possible.

true

True or False:False-dilemma fallacy is also called either-or thinking

true

True or False:. "If we improve the highway it will lead to urban sprawl" is an example of a slippery slope fallacy

d

. "Americans are quickly becoming the most obese people in the world" is which element of an argument?
A. reasoning
B. qualifier
C. evidence
D. claim

c

"More than two-thirds of adult Americans are overweight or obese" is which element of an argument?
A. reasoning
B. qualifier
C. evidence
D. claim

b

The ________ element of an argument indicates the strength of an assertion.
A. reasoning
B. qualifier
C. evidence
D. claim

a

Words indicating a conclusion in an argument include:
A. therefore.
B. likely.
C. probably.
D. whereas.

d

Words indicating a premise in an argument include:
A. therefore.
B. likely.
C. probably.
D. whereas.

b

________, one type of appeal, typically relies on communicating cultural beliefs, values, and history.
A. Ethos
B. Mythos
C. Logos
D. Pathos

c

A speaker who emphasizes how listeners will earn greater job security at work by earning a graduate degree is appealing to audience members' ____ needs.
A. esteem
B. physiological
C. safety
D. belonging

c

When persuasive speakers use facts and statistics, they rely on _______ to influence the audience.
A. ethos
B. mythos
C. logos
D. pathos

c

Reasoning from examples is ________ reasoning.
A. deductive
B. causal
C. inductive
D. analogical

d

When using ________ reasoning the two things compared must have enough similarities to make the comparison believable.
A. deductive
B. causal
C. inductive
D. analogical

a

Syllogisms are used in _______ reasoning.
A. deductive
B. causal
C. inductive
D. analogical

a

When persuasive speakers use an enthymeme in an argument they
A. invite dialogue.
B. confuse audience members.
C. leave out the facts associated with the argument.
D. incorporate ethos into their argument.

b

Slippery slope fallacy, begging the question, and false dilemma fallacy are examples of fallacies in
A. reasoning.
B. claims.
C. responding.
D. evidence.

a

Division, hasty generalization, and weak analogy are examples of fallacies in
A. reasoning.
B. claims.
C. responding.
D. evidence.

d

Comparative evidence, ad populum, and appeal to tradition are examples of fallacies in
A. reasoning.
B. claims.
C. responding.
D. evidence.

a

The use of statistics and facts is desirable when making an appeal to _________.
A. Logos
B. Pathos
C. Ethos
D. Mythos

b

Emotional appeals in one's speech are an appeal to _________.
A. Logos
B. Pathos
C. Ethos
D. Mythos

a

Which of the following is not one of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
A. Attention
B. Love/belonging
C. Esteem
D. Self-actualization

b

Water and Oxygen would best fall into ______________ needs on Maslow's Hierarchy.
A. Safety
B. Physiological
C. Esteem
D. Fundamental

b

"Mythos" is the term coined to designate appeals to ___________________.
A. Emotions
B. Cultural beliefs
C. Logic
D. Credibility

c

When a speaker supports a claim with specific instances or examples she is utilizing ______________ reasoning.
A. Causal
B. Analogical
C. Inductive
D. Deductive

c

We either raise student tuition or lay of teachers" is an example of which fallacy?
A. Slippery slope
B. Red herring
C. False dilemma
D. Hasty generalizations

d

"Two local restaurants have seen an increase in business since the football stadium was built, so all restaurants have benefitted" is an example of which fallacy?
A. Slippery slope
B. Red herring
C. False dilemma
D. Hasty generalizations

a

"My opponent is an idiot, and we should not follow his suggestions" is an example of which fallacy?
A. Ad hominem
B. Guilt by association
C. Ad populum
D. Post hoc

claim

a position or assertion that speaker wants an audience to accept

evidence

supporting materials that a speaker presents to reinforce a claim

reasoning

the method or process used to link claims to evidence

conclusion

a primary claim or assertion

premise

a claim that provides reasons to support a conclusion

enthymeme

an argument in which a premise or conclusion is unstated

qualifier

a word or phrase that clarifies, modifies, or limits the meaning of another word or phrase

deductive reasoning

reasoning from a general condition to a specific case

inductive reasoning

from specific examples to general principle

causal reasoning

one event causes another

analogical reasoning

draw similarities between two distinct cases

syllogism

a form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, minor premise, and a connclusion

Fallacies in claims

false dilemma, begging the question, slipper slope, ad ignorantiam

fallacies in evidence

red herring, ad populum, appeal to tradition, comparative evidence

fallacies in reasoning

division, hasty generalization, post hoc, weak analogy

fallacies in responding

ad hominem, guilt by association, straw man, loaded words

false dilemma

choices are reduced to just two
example: "we either raise student tuition or lay off teachers"

begging the question

something is true because it is
"our program is the best one because we rate it highly"

slippery slope

one event leaders to another without a logical connection
"if we improve this highway, it will lead to a decrease in traffic deaths"

ad ignorantiam

a thing is true because it hasn't be disproved
"angels must exist because we have no proof that they don't"

red herring

distract with irrelevant point or example
"spend less time online. our community is losing its unity so people should get more involved in it"

Ad populum

appeal to popular attitude or emotion
"if you're a true patriot, you'll support our petition for a new city hall

Appeal to tradition

support the status quo
"in person college classes are better than online classes because City College has always taught classes face to face"

Comparative evidence

inappropriate use of statistics
"violent crime in our city double from last year [speaker omits previous year's number which was very low]

Division

parts of whole share the same properties
"the red states voted republican. pat lives in a red state and therefore must have voted republican"

hasty generalization

insufficient examples or inadequate sample
"two local restaurants have seen an increase in business since the stadium was built so all restaurants have benefited"

Post hoc

misrepresents causal relationship
" the year after the department hired a new manager, sales increase"

weak analogy

key dissimilarities make the comparison misleading
"buying stocks is like gambling because both involve money and risk"

ad hominim

personal attack
"the administrator is an idiot, and of course came to a wrong conclusion"

guilt by association

claim linked to objectionable person
"osama bin laden would support this idea"

straw man

misrepresentation of a claim
"my opponent's position is that the police force should be abolished. [in reality the speaker's opponent is calling for minor budget cuts]"

Loaded words

emotionally laden, misleading language
"hunting is the senseless murder of innocent creatures"

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